Table 2.

Categorical comparison of survey-based exposure estimates and biological monitoring results using Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA by ranks

Exposure category*Subjects (n)Median 1-OHPG (pmol/mL)P
Smoked51.610.01
Did not smoke2990.16
Among nonsmokers only (n = 299)
Exposed to secondhand smoke240.250.20
Not exposed to secondhand smoke2750.16
Ate grilled meat1340.250.02
Did not eat grilled meat1650.06
Cooked by grilling, etc.1290.210.67
Did not cook by grilling, etc.1700.13
Wood burning in home230.250.89
No wood burning2760.16
Traveled on roads ≥3 hours880.230.03
Traveled on roads <3 hours2110.11
Heavy/moderate traffic on street540.250.18
Light traffic on street2440.12
Lived within four blocks of highway970.100.33
Did not live within four blocks of highway2020.19
  • * For the 24 hours preceding and 24 hours coinciding with urine collection.