Table 2.

Pooled multivariate RRs of renal cell cancer associated with beverage intakes

Beverage
Categories
P, test for trendP, test for between-studies heterogeneity
Total fluid*Quartile 1Quartile 2Quartile 3Quartile 4
Median (mL/d), women/men1,334/1,1911,816/1,6892,235/2,1362,832/2,823
RR (95% CI)1.001.15 (0.77-1.73)1.09 (0.72-1.65)0.99 (0.63-1.55)0.780.88
Alcohol (g/d)
None
0.1-4.9
5.0-14.9
≥15.0


No. cases, women/men30/2853/3534/2715/26
RR (95% CI)1.000.96 (0.68-1.34)0.87 (0.46-1.64)0.66 (0.43-1.00)0.070.36
Beer
None
Drinkers




No. cases, women/men114/5018/64
RR (95% CI)1.000.67 (0.37-1.24)0.05
RR (95% CI)1.000.68 (0.38-1.23)0.07
Wine (serving)
<1/mo
1/mo to <2/wk
≥2/wk



No. cases, women/men48/4551/4533/26
RR (95% CI)1.001.12 (0.84-1.50)1.06 (0.71-1.58)0.720.24
RR (95% CI)1.001.16 (0.86-1.55)1.12 (0.70-1.79)0.720.17
Liquor (serving)
<1/mo
1/mo to <2/wk
≥2/wk



No. cases, women/men79/5030/2823/37
RR (95% CI)1.000.88 (0.64-1.21)0.84 (0.60-1.16)0.320.97
RR (95% CI)1.000.90 (0.65-1.23)0.87 (0.62-1.21)0.440.91
Coffee (cups)
<1/mo
1/mo to <1/d
1 to <3/d
≥3/d


No. cases, women/men23/3122/3363/3524/15
RR (95% CI)1.000.91 (0.62-1.34)0.85 (0.60-1.21)0.84 (0.54-1.30)0.410.40
Decaffeinated coffee (cups)
<1/mo
1/mo to <1/d
1 to <2/d
≥2/d


No. cases, women/men40/4030/4516/1519/15
RR (95% CI)1.000.94 (0.57-1.57)0.95 (0.62-1.46)1.20 (0.80-1.80)0.380.57
Tea (cups)
<1/mo
1/mo to <1/wk
1/wk to <1/d
≥1/d


No. cases, women/men39/4315/2541/3437/12
RR (95% CI)1.000.78 (0.46-1.32)0.93 (0.55-1.56)0.78 (0.54-1.13)0.490.63
Milk (servings)
<2/wk
2/wk to <1/d
1/d to <2/d
≥2/d


No. cases, women/men39/2946/4433/1714/26
RR (95% CI)1.000.91 (0.63-1.33)0.82 (0.56-1.20)1.09 (0.39-2.99)§0.830.02
Juice (servings)
<2/wk
2/wk to <1/d
1 to <2/d
≥2/d


No.cases, women/men26/2938/4336/356/9
RR (95% CI)1.000.98 (0.69-1.39)1.11 (0.77-1.60)1.12 (0.61-2.07)0.510.98
Soda (servings)
<1/wk
1/wk to <1/d
1/d to <2/d
≥2/d


No. cases, women/men36/3256/6022/1618/7
RR (95% CI)1.001.12 (0.82-1.52)0.99 (0.66-1.50)1.03 (0.64-1.68)0.990.56
Water (servings)*
<1/d
1-<3/d
3-<5/d
≥5/d


No. cases, women/men11/1734/5628/3313/10
RR (95% CI)1.001.07 (0.70-1.64)1.12 (0.71-1.76)0.83 (0.47-1.48)0.800.98
  • NOTE: In the NHS, multivariate RRs were adjusted for BMI (<25, 25-26.9, 27-29.9, or ≥30 kg/m2), history of hypertension (yes, no), parity (continuous), history of diabetes (yes, no), smoking status (never, 1-19, 20-39, ≥40 pack-years), and total energy intake (continuous). In the HPFS, multivariate RRs were adjusted for BMI (<25, 25-26.9, 27-29.9, or ≥30 kg/m2), history of hypertension (yes, no), smoking status (never, 1-19, 20-39, ≥40 pack-years), multivitamin use (never, past, current), and total energy intake (continuous). Models of all beverages, except alcoholic beverages, were additionally adjusted for alcohol intake (continuous).

  • * In the NHS, follow-up was started in 1986 and 86 cases were included.

  • Additionally adjusted for two other alcoholic beverages (continuous).

  • In the NHS, follow-up was started in 1984 and 106 cases were included.

  • § Multivariate RRs were 0.64 (95% CI, 0.34-1.22) in the NHS and 1.80 (95% CI, 1.02-3.16) in the HPFS.