Table 1.

Main characteristics of the women at increased risk for breast cancer who underwent ductal lavage (n = 182)

Mean age ± SD (y)46 ± 8
Risk group
    High risk (Gail model*)91 (50%)
    High risk (BRCA mutations)28 (15%)
    Contralateral breast cancer63 (35%)
Mean ± SD body mass index (kg/m2)23.5 ± 8.2
Nipple discharge
    No88 (48%)
    Yes94 (52%)
Height (cm)
    <16167 (38%)
    161-16654 (30%)
    >16656 (32%)
Smoking status
    Never98 (55%)
    Ex49 (27%)
    Current32 (18%)
Age at menarche (y)
    <1248 (27%)
    12-1393 (52%)
    >1337 (21%)
Menopausal status
    Pre143 (80%)
    Post36 (20%)
Parity
    037 (21%)
    158 (32%)
    2+85 (47%)
Age at first pregnancy (y)
    <2532 (23%)
    25-3056 (39%)
    >3054 (38%)
Breastfeeding
    No29 (20%)
    Yes114 (80%)
Hormone replacement therapy
    No164 (90%)
    Yes18 (10%)
Oral contraceptives
    Never81 (45%)
    Ex77 (43%)
    Current21 (12%)
First-degree family history of breast cancer
    No83 (46%)
    Yes97 (54%)
  • NOTE: For some women, information on some of the variables was missing.

  • * Premenopausal and postmenopausal women with a 5-year risk of ≥1.3% according to the updated version of the Gail model.

  • Women with documented genetic mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene or with a probability of ≥10% of carrying a mutation according to the Berry-Parmigiani model.