Table 1.

Baseline characteristics in the HPFS study population by lowest and highest quintiles of heterocyclic amine and MDM intake

PhIP (ng/d)
MeIQx (ng/d)
DiMeIQx (ng/d)
MDM (revertant colonies/d)
Q1 (14.4)Q5 (220.4)Q1 (1.5)Q5 (35.0)Q1 (0)Q5 (4.0)Q1 (711)Q5 (8,125)
Mean age (y)65.059.763.662.364.060.164.260.9
Race (%)*
    Southern European19.421.722.418.022.221.021.519.9
    Northern European70.267.365.771.867.469.767.470.1
    Others3.85.04.53.64.03.44.34.1
Current smokers (%)3.04.71.36.72.74.92.15.4
Mean pack-years smoking9.812.69.213.610.612.09.712.7
Family history of colorectal cancer (%)17.217.117.516.616.515.916.916.4
Aspirin use (>2/wk; %)52.855.355.354.854.757.253.956.9
Mean height (inches)70.170.269.970.570.170.370.070.3
Body mass index (kg/m2)25.025.924.826.125.425.825.025.9
Physical activity (MET)34.734.536.732.434.434.734.633.7
Mean daily intake (94 FFQ)
    Calories (kcal)1,8642,1281,7962,2651,9102,1081,8272,173
    Total fat (g)60.267.456.072.662.365.860.167.1
    Animal protein (g)54.363.854.962.958.962.153.963.6
    Vegetable protein (g)30.026.231.287.828.527.030.126.4
    Total iron (mg)22.520.022.619.521.920.322.220.4
    Heme iron (mg)0.91.30.91.31.11.20.921.3
    Folate (μg)583529612485567527584525
    Methionine (g)1.92.12.02.12.02.11.92.1
    Alcohol (g)9.113.88.712.710.512.39.512.4
    Vitamin C (mg)565465613392528452568445
    Total carotene (IU)15,02712,46316,48810,79414,27912,64615,05412,282
    Vitamin D (IU)493444522407488436498440
    Calcium (mg)1,0128601,013867967896995884
    Total fiber (g)25.821.927.420.324.422.525.822.0
    Red meat (servings/d)0.350.650.240.840.430.620.310.69
    Processed meat (servings/d)0.170.310.100.460.210.280.150.34
    Chicken + turkey (servings/d)0.330.480.380.390.390.440.330.47
  • NOTE: Standardized for age in 1996. Q1 is lowest quintile and Q5 is highest quintile. Numbers in parentheses are median value in each quintile (ng/d for heterocyclic amines and revertant colonies/d for MDM).

    Abbreviation: MET, metabolic equivalent-hours/wk.

  • * Due to missing values, percentages for race do not add up to 100%.

  • Mean daily intakes of nutrients are energy adjusted.