Table 1.

Gastroscopy-based studies

Author(s), year (ref.*)Study population
Prevalence of CAG in %
Performance of gastrostroscopy and histology§
Country (time of survey)SettingNo. participants (gender), response rateAge (mean)Overall (severe)By sex (severe)By age, (severe)By location (severe)
Siurala et al., 1968 (11, 16)Finland (1966)Population registry based142 (M, 45.1%; F, 54.9%), 74%16-65 (42)M, 20.3; F, 34.6Age: bodyBody: 28 (2.8)• Suction tube method (blind)
16-20: 6• Mostly three biopsies per subj.
21-30: 10• crit.: Siurala et al. (11)
31-40: 21
41-50: 20
51-60: 51
61-65: 60
Villako et al., 1976 (12, 16)EstoniaPopulation registry based155 (M, 38.0%; F, 62.0%), 62%16-69 (46)age: fundus/antrumFundus: 20 (6), antrum: 29 (1)• Mostly four biopsies per subj. (fundus and antrum, each posterior and anterior wall)
16-19: 0/29• crit.: Siurala et al. (11)
20-29: 0/8
30-39: 11/11
44-49: 21/33
50-59: 27/42
60-69: 31/35
Kreuning et al., 1978 (13)NetherlandsHospital workers + “healthy” volunteers50 (M, 54%; F, 46%)20-58 (33)34 (4)M, 22; F, 4320-29: 10Fundus: 30, antrum: 34• Biopsies from seven standard sites
30-39: 31• crit.: Whitehead (73)
40-49: 80
50-59: 50
Ihamaki et al. 1979 (14)FinlandPopulation registry based (controls for GC relatives)358 (M, 50.2; F, 49.8), 87%15 to ≥66 (46.0)Body/antrum: M, 13/26; F, 18/29Age: body/antrumBody: 16, antrum: 28• Biopsies: at least three from antrum plus at least six from body
15-30: 6/10• crit.: Siurala et al. (11)
31-50: 7/24
51-65: 27/44
≥65: 42/49
Cheli et al., 1980 (15)Italy“Randomly chosen”1002220-29: 6.7• Biopsies: one from fundus plus one from antrum
30-39: 17.6• crit.: Valencia-Parparcen et al. (74)
40-49: 22.2
50-59: 33.3
60-69: 18.8
70-79: 40.0
Hungary1003720-29: 14.3
30-39: 22.2
40-49: 33.3
50-59: 29.4
60-69: 44.4
70-79: 80.0
Villako et al., 1982 (16, 17)Estonia (1979)Population registry based227 (M, 45.4%; F, 54.6%), 85%15-69 (39.9)Body/antrum: M, 41/38; f, 33/31Age: fundus/antrumBody: 37 (6), antrum: 34 (1)• Biopsies: at least three from antrum plus at least six from body
15-19: 21/16• crit.: Siurala et al. (11)
20-29: 20/29
30-39: 24/25
40-49: 35/35
50-59: 64/54
60-69: 67/45
Cheli et al., 1986 (18)ItalyControls for duodenal ulcer patients (hospital based)60 (M, 68%; F, 32%)20-69 (42)Age: fundus/antrumFundus: 16.6, antrum: 15.0• Biopsies: three from body and two from antrum
<40: 7.2/3.6
>40: 25.0/25.0• crit.: Cheli et al. (77)
Correa et al., 1990 (19)Columbia (1973-1983)Household based1 670 (M, 49.9%; F, 50.1%)15 to ≥5545M, 48; F, 4115-24: 23• Multiple biopsies (at least four sites plus at gastroscopic suspect regions)
25-34: 37• crit: Correa (75) and Correa et al. (76)
35-44: 49
45-54: 64
≥55: 59
Johnsen et al., 1991 (20, 21)Norway (1987)Population registry based (controls for dyspeptic persons)273 (M/F, ∼50%/50%), 65%20-6950.5• Biopsies from corpus and antrum, including both greater and lesser curvature
• crit.: Whitehead (72) and Owen (78)
You et al., 1993 (22, 23)China (1989-1990)Population registry based3,400 (M, 52.7%; F, 47.3%), 93%35-6498.1Age: male/femaleCardia: 48-58**, body: 29-66**, angulus: 82-83**, antrum: 76-90**• Multiple biopsies (at least seven sites plus at gastroscopic suspect regions)
35-39: 97.3/97.3• crit.: You et al. (22)
40-44: 98.4/98.2
45-49: 98.4/99.5
50-54: 97.7/100.0
55-59: 98.4/99
60-64: 100/99.2
Katelaris et al., 1993 (24)AustraliaHealthy volunteers (recruited via advertising)50 (only men)18-30 (mean 23) and ≥50 (mean 73)2218-30: 0Fundus: 16, body: 16, antrum: 22• Biopsies: four from antrum, three from corpus, four from fundus
≥50: 39
• crit: Sydney system (69)
Asaka et al., 1996(25)JapanHealth screening8530 to ≥6052.9Age: Hp+/Hp††• Biopsies: paired biopsy specimen from antrum and corpus
30-39: 49/0
40-49: 60/12• crit: Sydney system (69, 71)
50-59: 69/15
≥60: 87/30
You et al., 1998(26)China (1994)Population registry based214‡‡ (M, 50%; F, 50%)35-6482.2M, 80.4; F, 84.135-39: 81.6Body: 13.2, angulus: 59.1, antrum: 70-79§§• Biopsies: 4
40-44: 80.9• crit: You et al. (22)
45-49: 76.9
50-54: 86.6
55-59: 78.6
60-64: 87.0
Borch et al., 2000 (27)SwedenPopulation registry based501 (M, 55%; F, 45%), 25%35-8528 (8.2)35-44: 8• Biopsies: three from body (major, anterior, posterior) and three from antrum (within 3 cm of pylorus)
45-54: 19• crit.: Sydney system (69, 70)
55-64: 21
65-74: 36
≥75: 56
Malekzadeh et al., 2004 (28)Iran (2000-2001)Population registry based1 001 (M, 48.9%; F, 51.1%), 91.5%40-92 (53, 32)
Cardia: 21.9, corpus: 46.9, antrum: 45.2• Multiple biopsies (at least four sites plus at gastroscopic suspect regions)
• crit.: Malekzadeh et al. (28)
  • Abbreviations: crit., criteria for diagnosis of CAG; F, female; GC, gastric cancer; M, male; subj., subject.

  • * When multiple references are listed: the first publication contains data on prevalence rates; the others contain information on additional extracted study details.

  • Age-stratified data were derived from graphs in Kreuning et al. (13), Ihamaki et al. (14), and Asaka et al. (25).

  • Age-stratified data are subdivided in severe and nonsevere forms (data not shown in the table because numbers are too small) in Siurala et al. (11), Villako et al. (12), Ihamaki et al. (14), and Villako et al. (16).

  • § The numbers of biopsies refer to the aspired quantity; sometimes, not all of them could be obtained in a subject.

  • Exact sites for biopsies: Kreuning et al. (13): (1) prepyloric; (2) minor curvature just above the angulus; (3) major curvature opposite to 2; (4) high up the minor curvature, just below the cardia; (5) antrum; (6) middle of corpus, posterior wall; (7) fundus. Cheli et al. (18): (1) middle portion of the lesser curvature, just proximal to the incisure; (2) high on the lesser curvature, 3 cm below the cardia; (3) middle portion of the greater curvature; (4) antral anterior wall, within 2 cm of the pylorus; (5) antral posterior wall within 2 cm of the pylorus. Correa et al. (19): (1) midportion of antral lesser curvature; (2) midportion of antral greater curvature; (3) transition zone; (4) midanterior wall of body; (5+) additional biopsies; (6+) gastroscopic suspect lesions. You et al. (22): (1) midway between cardia and angulus on the lesser curvature; (2) middle of the greater curvature of the corpus; (3) center of the angulus along the middle portion of the lesser curvature; (4) 1 cm from the pylorus along the lesser curvature; (5) posterior wall of the antum; (6) anterior wall of the antrum; (7) greater curvature of the antrum; (8+) if severe lesions were visually at gastroscopy. You et al. (26): (1) greater curvature of the body, (2) angulus, (3) lesser curvature of the antrum, (4) greater curvature of the antrum. Malekzadeh et al. (28): (1) antrum between the incisura angularis and pyloric canal; (2) antrum, on the opposite of 1 over the greater curvature; (3) cardia, 0.5 to 1.0 cm below the gastrooesophageal junction on the anterior wall; (4) same as 3 but on posterior wall; (5-6) in some subjects: corpus greater and lesser curvature; (7+) at all visible lesions.

  • Difference not significant.

  • ** Variations in location-stratified values depend on sex and exact biopsy site.

  • †† The age-stratified data are subdivided between H. pylori–infected subjects (Hp+) and those who are not infected (Hp).

  • ‡‡ Only participants from Cangshan are included because results from Linqu are already analyzed in You et al. (22).

  • §§ Variations in location-stratified values depend on the exact biopsy site.