Table 1.

Age-standardized characteristics of nested case-control study participants by prostate cancer and T. vaginalis plasma antibody status, Health Professionals Follow-up Study 1994

Prostate cancer case and matched control status
P*T. vaginalis antibody serostatus (controls only)
Cases (n = 691)Controls (n = 691)Seropositive (n = 65)Seronegative (n = 626)
Mean age at blood draw (y)65.865.7Matching variable65.865.70.98
Caucasian race (%)94.694.20.5692.494.40.52
Family history of prostate cancer (%)21.816.80.029.317.60.08
Mean height in 1986 (in.)
Smoked cigarettes in the past 10 y (%)16.517.70.6114.418.00.46
Mean intakes of
    Total energy (kcal/d)2,0122,0350.471,9362,0450.18
    Alcohol (g/d)11.811.50.7013.011.40.40
    Tomato sauce (servings/d)§
    Red meat (servings/d)§
    Fish (servings/d)§0.310.330.040.360.330.40
    Fructose in 1990 (g/d)49.949.40.6049.949.40.79
    Calcium (mg/d)950.1951.50.95899.1956.90.32
    α-Linolenic acid (g/d)
Vitamin E supplementation (%)37.534.40.2832.034.70.66
Any vigorous leisure-time physical activity (%)
Vasectomy (%)25.926.50.8532.325.90.26
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (%)
Aspirin use since age 20 y (%)
    Infrequent (0-19% of the time)26.923.622.923.7
    Moderate (20-79% of the time)29.531.80.4029.832.00.68
    Regular (80-100% of the time)
PSA test after blood draw (%)**99.699.71.00100.099.40.52
Digital rectal examination after blood draw (%)**
History of (%)††
    Clinical prostatitis22.018.00.0721.817.60.39
Mean monthly ejaculation frequency, ages 20 to 29 y††13.614.00.1714.314.00.70
Consumed alcohol, ages 18 to 22 y (%)‡‡69.668.20.6175.467.40.18
Smoked cigarettes before age 30 y (%)§§47.949.50.5946.549.80.61
Mean body mass index at age 21 y (kg/m2)§§22.822.90.2423.222.90.48
Any vigorous physical activity (%) in††
    High school84.885.01.0086.584.80.72
  • NOTE: Data are age-standardized by matching for comparisons between prostate cancer cases and controls, and by multivariable linear regression (including 2-year age indicator variables) for comparisons between T. vaginalis antibody seropositive and seronegative participants.

  • * Assessed by paired t test for continuous variables, McNemar's test for dichotomous variables, and the likelihood ratio test for polychotomous variables.

  • Assessed by the Wald test.

  • Assessed in 1990 to 1996.

  • § Cumulative mean intake between 1986 and 1994.

  • Adjusted for total energy intake.

  • Percentages do not sum to 100% due to missing values.

  • ** Assessed through 2000.

  • †† Assessed in 1992.

  • ‡‡ Assessed in 1988.

  • §§ Assessed in 1986.