Table 1.

Univariate and multivariate analyses of associations between behavioral and demographic risk factors and testing anti-HPV16 antibody positive for 205 women who tested HPV16 DNA positive using PCR at the first study visit

CharacteristicNo. (% of column within category)No. testing anti-HPV16 antibody positive (row %)Unadjusted OR (95% CL)Adjusted OR (95% CL)*,
Cigarette smoking
    Nonsmokers
        Never smoker and women with ≥ 3 mo smoking cessation131 (64)70 (53)11
    Smokers
        Stopped smoking < 3 mo14 (7)5 (36)0.5 (0.2, 2.2)0.5 (0.3, 0.9)
        <1 up to 5 cigarettes daily37 (18)16 (43)0.7 (0.3, 3.8)
        6-20 cigarettes daily23 (11)6 (26)0.3 (0.1, 1.1)
Pap test
    No intraepithelial lesions118 (58)47 (40)11
    ASCUS or SIL87 (42)50 (57)2.0 (1.2, 3.6)2.0 (1.1, 3.7)
Self-report for history of external genital warts
    No188 (92)86 (46)11
    Yes17 (8)11 (65)2.0 (0.8, 6.1)2.5 (0.8, 7.6)
Race/ethnicity
    Caucasian160 (78)72 (45)11
    African American20 (10)13 (65)0.7 (0.3, 1.3)1.5 (0.7, 3.2)
    Asian5 (2)1 (20)
    Hispanic14 (7)8 (57)
    Other6 (3)3 (50)
Lifetime number of male intercourse partners
    119 (9)7 (37)11
    228 (14)17 (61)1.6 (0.6, 4.3)1.2 (0.4, 3.5)
    346 (22)22 (48)
    459 (29)29 (49)
    553 (26)22 (42)
Barrier contraceptive methods
    No125 (61)59 (47)11
    Yes80 (39)38 (48)1.0 (0.6, 1.8)1.1 (0.6, 1.9)
History of “other STIs”
    No182 (89)84 (46)11
    Yes23 (11)13 (57)1.5 (0.6, 3.6)1.0 (0.4, 2.7)
  • * Estimates are adjusted for the effect of smoking, history of external genital warts, history of STIs (i.e., chlamydia, pelvic inflammatory disease, syphilis, gonorrhea, and genital herpes), age, number of years since first intercourse, barrier contraceptive methods, race/ethnicity (White versus other), lifetime number of male sex partners.

  • Hosmer-Lemeshow model fit statistic: X2 = 5.1, 8 degrees of freedom, P = 0.8.

  • Cochran-Armitage trend test Z = −2.3, P = 0.02.