Table 3.

Multivariate-adjusted RRs (95% CIs) of colorectal, colon, and rectal cancer according to total iron intake, total fresh meat and processed meat consumption, and chlorophyll intake of men and women in the NLCS (9.3 years of follow-up)

Men
Women
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5PtrendQ1Q2Q3Q4Q5Ptrend
Colorectal cancer
    Total iron1 (Reference)0.92 0.69-1.231.16 0.86-1.551.02 0.75-1.391.34 0.93-1.930.121 (Reference)1.22 (0.91-1.63)1.01 (0.74-1.39)1.11 (0.80-1.55)1.08 (0.72-1.62)0.90
    Fresh meat1 (Reference)1.00 (0.77-1.30)0.91 (0.70-1.19)0.93 (0.72-1.22)0.82 (0.62-1.08)0.151 (Reference)1.12 (0.82-1.52)1.30 (0.97-1.75)1.13 (0.83-1.53)1.10 (0.80-1.51)0.57
    Processed meat (categories)1 (Reference)1.02 (0.74-1.41)0.98 (0.71-1.36)1.18 (0.84-1.64)0.251 (Reference)1.04 (0.78-1.39)1.13 (0.82-1.55)1.05 (0.74-1.48)0.62
    Chlorophyll1 (Reference)0.94 (0.72-1.22)0.88 (0.68-1.15)0.87 (0.66-1.13)0.94 (0.72-1.23)0.501 (Reference)0.80 (0.59-1.08)1.11 (0.84-1.48)0.97 (0.73-1.30)0.91 (0.68-1.23)0.99
Colon cancer
    Total iron1 (Reference)0.90 (0.64-1.26)0.98 (0.69-1.40)0.85 (0.58-1.24)1.30 (0.84-2.01)0.431 (Reference)1.30 (0.94-1.81)0.89 (0.62-1.29)1.12 (0.77-1.64)1.14 (0.73-1.80)0.91
    Total fresh meat1 (Reference)1.01 (0.74-1.38)1.07 (0.79-1.47)1.04 (0.76-1.43)0.88 (0.63-1.23)0.59ref 11.04 (0.73-1.47)1.30 (0.94-1.80)1.07 (0.76-1.51)1.00 (0.70-1.45)0.89
    Processed meat (categories)1 (Reference)1.11 (0.75-1.63)1.09 (0.73-1.63)1.33 (0.89-1.99)0.131 (Reference)1.00 (0.72-1.39)1.06 (0.74-1.51)1.07 (0.73-1.57)0.61
    Chlorophyll1 (Reference)0.88 (0.65-1.20)0.73 (0.53-1.00)0.78 (0.57-1.06)0.78 (0.57-1.07)0.081 (Reference)0.75 (0.54-1.05)1.06 (0.78-1.46)0.87 (0.63-1.20)0.81 (0.58-1.13)0.46
Rectal cancer
    Total iron1 (Reference)1.02 (0.67-1.56)1.54 (1.02-2.32)1.39 (0.89-2.16)1.44 (0.85-2.45)0.081 (Reference)0.97 (0.57-1.66)1.41 (0.83-2.38)1.13 (0.63-2.04)1.11 (0.53-2.30)0.63
    Total fresh meat1 (Reference)1.03 (0.72-1.48)0.73 (0.49-1.07)0.81 (0.56-1.18)0.78 (0.53-1.14)0.091 (Reference)1.42 (0.83-2.43)1.30 (0.76-2.22)1.37 (0.80-2.35)1.40 (0.81-2.42)0.33
    Processed meat (categories)1 (Reference)0.90 (0.58-1.40)0.83 (0.52-1.31)0.96 (0.60-1.53)0.991 (Reference)1.19 (0.71-2.02)1.42 (0.81-2.50)1.01 (0.54-1.90)0.83
    Chlorophyll1 (Reference)1.19 (0.74-1.89)1.45 (0.92-2.29)1.08 (0.67-1.75)1.27 (0.80-2.02)0.491 (Reference)0.99 (0.52-1.89)1.41 (0.77-2.58)1.48 (0.81-2.70)1.27 (0.68-2.35)0.19
  • NOTE: Adjusted for age at baseline (y), BMI (kg/m2), family history of colorectal cancer (yes, no), cigarette smoker (never, former, current), nonoccupational physical activity (<30, 30-60, 60-90, >90 min/d), total energy intake (kJ), consumption of alcohol (0-4.9, 5-14.9, 15-29.9, ≥30 g/d for men; 0, 0.1-4.9, 5-14.9, ≥15 g/d for women), and total vegetable consumption (g/d).