Table 6.

Percent risk of HCC and corresponding 95% CI attributable to HBV, HCV, alcohol drinking, and tobacco smoking, overall and by gender and center (229 cases and 431 controls); Italy, 1999-2002

Risk factorPercent attributable risks (95% CI)
OverallGender
Center
MenWomenPordenoneNaples
HCV (anti-HCV+)61 (54-68)58 (50-66)75 (62-89)46 (35-57)75 (66-83)
HBV (HBsAg+)13 (9-18)14 (9-20)8 (0-17)7 (2-11)19 (11-26)
Hepatitis viruses72 (66-79)70 (63-77)83 (71-94)53 (43-64)89 (83-95)
Heavy alcohol drinking*18 (9-27)23 (13-34)32 (18-47)6 (−5-16)
Tobacco smoking8 (−2 to 19)12 (0-24)21 (6-36)
Hepatitis viruses, heavy alcohol drinking, and tobacco smoking87 (81-94)89 (82-96)83 (70-97)81 (70-93)93 (87-99)
  • NOTE: Percent attributable risks and 95% CI were adjusted for age, education, and, when appropriate, gender and center.

  • * ≥35 versus <35 drinks/wk.

  • Current versus never/former.