Table 2.

OR for HCC and corresponding 95% CI by alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking (229 cases and 431 controls); Italy, 1999-2002

Cases
Controls
OR (95% CI)
n (%)n (%)
Alcohol drinking
    Never20 (8.7)66 (15.3)1*
    Former118 (51.5)48 (11.1)3.98 (1.74-9.09)
    Current91 (39.7)317 (73.6)0.84 (0.39-1.83)
Years since cessation
    <546 (20.1)11 (2.6)6.34 (1.92-21.04)
    ≥572 (31.4)37 (8.5)2.56 (0.96-6.82)
Maximal lifetime alcohol intake (drinks/wk)
    <716 (7.0)42 (9.7)1.67 (0.55-5.13)
    7-1326 (11.4)80 (18.6)0.91 (0.35-2.38)
    14-2038 (16.6)79 (18.3)1.04 (0.41-2.65)
    21-3453 (23.1)81 (18.8)1.61 (0.61-4.29)
    ≥3576 (33.2)83 (19.32)5.94 (2.25-15.67)
    χ12 for trend14.44; P < 0.01
Tobacco smoking
    Never66 (28.8)146 (33.9)1
    Former89 (38.9)172 (39.9)0.82 (0.45-1.50)
    Current74 (32.3)113 (26.2)1.14 (0.61-2.15)
        Cigarettes/d§
            1-1438 (16.6)59 (13.7)1.15 (0.55-2.42)
            ≥1536 (15.7)54 (12.5)1.13 (0.52-2.45)
        χ12 for trend0.03; P = 0.87
  • NOTE: OR and 95% CI were adjusted for gender, age, center, education, and HBsAg or anti-HCV positivity.

  • * Reference category.

  • Former drinkers only.

  • Current and former drinkers combined.

  • § Current smokers only.