Table 1.

Distribution of cases and controls by selected characteristics

CasesHospital controlsPopulation controlsP of log-likelihood ratio test*
No. subjects211211197
Men (%)66.459.762.9NS
Education (%)100100100
    Illiterate33.238.935.1
    Primary school6459.761.9NS
    Vocational and high school2.81.43.0
Occupation (%)100100100
    Agricultural workers71.670.173.3
    Service workers16.620.913.3
    Professional and clerical1.90.90.6NS
    Industry crafts and trade4.33.89.4
    Other5.74.33.3
Smoking status (%)100100100
    Never7.119.016.8
    Occasional0.50.92.0
    Ex-smoker48.350.737.6<0.01
    Current44.129.443.6
%Nonsmokers
    Men4.310.37.1NS
    Women14.134.139.7<0.01
Years of regular smoking§
    1-152.15.36.1
    16-4048.258.043.90.02
    41+49.736.750.0
Average cigarettes/d§
    1-330.132.145.0
    4-724.432.126.9<0.01
    7+45.635.728.1
%Smokers of manufactured cigarettes only
    Men7.915.921.0<0.01
    Women5.63.54.1NS
%Smokers consuming commercial cigarettes by age
Age (y)
    <5516.144.641.8
    56-6432.329.229.9P < 0.01
    65-7125.815.420.9
    72+25.810.87.5
%Regular chewers of miang
    Men71.472.272.6NS
    Women81.862.372.50.03
%Regular chewers of betel nut**
    Men2.15.64.8NS
    Women12.714.117.8NS
  • Abbreviation: NS, not significant.

  • * Test for independence of case/control status and variable on the row unless otherwise specified.

  • Includes street vendors.

  • P for the difference of the three proportions within group.

  • § Smokers excluded.

  • P for trend by age.

  • Mixture of fermented tea leaves, coconut, peanut, and sugar.

  • ** Betel nut, tobacco, red lime, and fresh leaf of piper betel.