Table 1.

Intake of carotenoids and risk of ovarian cancer in the National Breast Screening Study

CasesIncident ovarian cancer risk
Person-yearsHazard ratio (95% confidence interval)
β-Carotene (μg/d)
    0-3,27467201,5101.00 (reference)
    >3,274-4,80064201,1590.95 (0.65-1.38)
    >4,800-7,00066200,3191.00 (0.69-1.45)
    >7,00067198,4260.97 (0.66-1.43)
    Ptrend0.95
α-Carotene (μg/d)
    0-5,83973201,9081.00 (reference)
    >5,839-9,70067201,5010.92 (0.64-1.32)
    >9,700-15,50058200,0080.85 (0.59-1.25)
    >15,50066197,9960.94 (0.64-1.38)
    Ptrend0.65
Lycopene (μg/d)
    0-4,70868200,5041.00 (reference)
    >4,708-8,60062200,6300.88 (0.61-1.27)
    >8,600-15,00067200,7900.95 (0.66-1.37)
    >15,00067199,4900.92 (0.63-1.34)
    Ptrend0.75
Lutein (μg/d)
    0-1,83869200,0681.00 (reference)
    >1,838-2,77554200,2850.64 (0.43-1.96)
    >2,775-4,27867200,6720.90 (0.62-1.30)
    >4,27874200,3880.98 (0.68-1.41)
    Ptrend0.69
β-Cryptoxanthan (μg/d)
    0-4858199,1841.00 (reference)
    >48-8872200,7531.15 (0.78-1.67)
    >88-14371200,6731.17 (0.80-1.71)
    >14363200,8031.01 (0.67-1.51)
    Ptrend0.94
Total carotenoid (μg/d)
    0-26,27262200,9251.00 (reference)
    >26,272-3860062201,0941.00 (0.68-1.46)
    >38,600-51,00064200,3051.00 (0.68-1.47)
    >51,00076199,0881.19 (0.81-1.74)
    Ptrend0.40
  • NOTE: Results are adjusted hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval and show association based on increasing quartiles of intake. Multivariate adjusted for age (time to event variable), pack-years of smoking (none plus three levels), menopausal status, use of oral contraceptives (ever versus never), body mass index (<25, 25 to 29, ≥30 kg/m2), education (≤12 versus >12 years), participation in vigorous physical activity (any, none, missing), energy intake at baseline (continuous), study center, and randomization group (intervention versus control).