Table 4.

Pooled multivariate adjusted RRs and 95% CIs for histologic subtypes of ovarian cancer according to dairy food and nutrient intake, continuous model

Increment* (/d)All ovarian cancer
Endometrioid cancer
Mucinous cancer
Serous cancer§
P
Case, nRR (95% CI)P**Case nRR (95% CI)P**Case nRR (95% CI)P**Case nRR (95% CI)P**
Foods
    Milk250 g2,1061.02 (0.97-1.08)0.342551.10 (0.95-1.27)0.501200.97 (0.77-1.22)0.401,0151.06 (0.94-1.19)0.010.60
        Whole milk††250 g1,9190.98 (0.88-1.10)0.092400.91 (0.65-1.27)0.291131.19 (0.88-1.61)0.889300.91 (0.76-1.08)0.190.37
        Low-fat milk††250 g1,9831.04 (0.98-1.09)0.642491.16 (1.00-1.34)0.811160.93 (0.73-1.20)0.429681.08 (0.99-1.18)0.260.21
    Cheese
        Hard cheese‡‡25 g2,0271.02 (0.93-1.11)0.172591.11 (0.92-1.35)0.771221.00 (0.75-1.33)0.569821.07 (0.97-1.18)0.690.75
        Cottage cheese§§105 g1,4640.82 (0.63-1.08)0.221820.95 (0.50-1.81)0.64871.59 (0.92-2.57)0.537080.90 (0.62-1.32)0.210.05
    Yogurt∥∥227 g1,8090.91 (0.77-1.07)0.802390.98 (0.64-1.49)0.831190.83 (0.42-1.64)0.719310.93 (0.74-1.18)0.930.95
    Ice cream¶¶66 g1,7531.00 (0.84-1.20)0.492371.13 (0.68-1.87)0.76960.47 (0.12-1.83)0.208691.17 (0.94-1.44)0.850.36
Nutrients
    Dietary calcium350mg2,1321.03 (0.97-1.09)0.322611.08 (0.93-1.25)0.391220.88 (0.70-1.11)0.701,0251.08 (0.97-1.21)0.030.50
    Total calcium***350mg1,4141.01 (0.99-1.02)0.411481.08 (0.94-1.24)0.03591.08 (0.89-1.30)0.486821.00 (0.93-1.07)0.290.53
    Lactose10 g2,1321.04 (0.99-1.08)0.262611.07 (0.95-1.20)0.631220.97 (0.81-1.16)0.661,0251.06 (0.97-1.16)0.020.63
    Dietary vitamin D†††100 IU1,5831.06 (1.00-1.12)0.281981.17 (0.97-1.42)0.04810.95 (0.73-1.24)0.227821.04 (0.98-1.12)0.830.84
    Total vitamin D‡‡‡100 IU1,2961.02 (0.99-1.04)0.311481.08 (1.02-1.15)0.21590.99 (0.85-1.10)0.256471.02 (0.94-1.09)0.850.17
  • * Increment for foods is based on the standard serving size and for nutrients is based on the mean of the SD of the mean intake for each nutrient.

  • Endometrioid analyses additionally exclude Adventist Health Study, New York State Cohort, and New York University Women's Health Study due to small case numbers.

  • Mucinous analyses additionally exclude Adventist Health Study, Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project Follow-up Study, New York State Cohort, New York University Women's Health Study, Nurses' Health Study II, and Women's Health Study due to small case numbers.

  • § Serous analyses additionally exclude Adventist Health Study due to small case numbers.

  • P value for the test for the common effect by histologic types of ovarian cancer (endometrioid, mucinous, and serous).

  • Multivariate RRs were adjusted for age at menarche (<13, 13, >13 years), menopausal status at baseline (premenopausal, postmenopausal, dubious), oral contraceptive use (ever, never), hormone replacement therapy use among postmenopausal women (never, past, current), parity (0, 1, 2, >2), BMI (<23, 23-<25, 25-<30, ≥30 kg/m2), smoking status (never, past, current), physical activity (low, medium, high), and energy intake (continuously), modeled identically across studies.

  • ** P value, test for between-studies heterogeneity.

  • †† New York State Cohort is not included in the low-fat or whole-milk analyses because they did not measure consumption of these items separately.

  • ‡‡ New York State Cohort is not included in the hard cheese analyses because they did not measure consumption of this food item.

  • §§ Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, New York State Cohort, and Swedish Mammography Cohort are excluded from the cottage cheese analyses because they did not measure consumption of this food item.

  • ∥∥ Adventist Health Study, Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project Follow-up Study, and New York State Cohort are excluded from the yogurt analyses because they did not measure consumption of this food item.

  • ¶¶ Adventist Health Study, the Netherlands Cohort Study, and New York State Cohort are excluded from the ice cream analyses because they did not measure consumption of this food item.

  • *** Canadian National Breast Screening Study, the Netherlands Cohort Study, and Swedish Mammography Cohort are excluded from the total calcium analyses because they did not have supplement use data available.

  • ††† Adventist Health Study, Canadian National Breast Screening Study, the Netherlands Cohort Study, New York University Women's Health Study are excluded from the dietary and total vitamin D analyses because they did not assess vitamin D intake.

  • ‡‡‡ Swedish Mammography Cohort is excluded from the total vitamin D analyses because they did not have supplement use data available.