Table 3.

Pooled age and multivariate adjusted RRs and 95% CIs for ovarian cancer according to intake of dairy foods and nutrients

Categories of intakePheterogeneity*Ptrend
Foods
    Milk (g/d)    Range01-69.970-124.9125-249.9250-499.9≥500
    Cases214305320673321273
Age RR1.00 (Reference)0.98 (0.81-1.17)1.07 (0.85-1.34)1.09 (0.87-1.36)0.90 (0.73-1.10)1.10 (0.89-1.36)0.480.20
MV RR1.00 (Reference)0.98 (0.81-1.17)1.07 (0.84-1.35)1.09 (0.87-1.36)0.90 (0.73-1.11)1.11 (0.87-1.41)0.300.43
    Whole§, (g/d)    Range01-124.9125-249.9≥250
    Cases1,120428226145
Age RR1.00 (Reference)0.92 (0.82-1.04)1.01 (0.87-1.18)0.93 (0.75-1.16)0.280.83
MV RR1.00 (Reference)0.94 (0.83-1.05)1.04 (0.88-1.21)0.95 (0.73-1.24)0.100.99
    Low-fat§ (g/d)    Range01-124.9125-249.9≥250
    Cases818343449373
Age RR1.00 (Reference)1.00 (0.87-1.15)1.08 (0.93-1.25)1.07 (0.94-1.23)0.440.38
MV RR1.00 (Reference)0.99 (0.86-1.14)1.08 (0.93-1.25)1.07 (0.93-1.23)0.510.38
    Hard cheese,** (g/d)    Range01-24.925-49.9≥50
    Cases1911,444253139
Age RR1.00 (Reference)1.05 (0.87-1.27)1.05 (0.74-1.49)1.24 (0.92-1.68)0.660.51
MV RR1.00 (Reference)1.09 (0.90-1.33)1.09 (0.77-1.53)1.30 (0.96-1.78)0.740.38
    Cottage cheese††,‡‡ (g/d)    Range01-25.926-52.9≥53
    Cases54266817975
Age RR1.00 (Reference)0.96 (0.85-1.09)0.91 (0.75-1.12)0.88 (0.63-1.23)0.140.31
MV RR1.00 (Reference)0.97 (0.85-1.10)0.92 (0.75-1.13)0.88 (0.63-1.23)0.140.33
    Yogurt,§§ (g/d)    Range01-27.928-56.957-113.9≥114
    Cases800407177197228
Age RR1.00 (Reference)0.98 (0.87-1.12)0.89 (0.75-1.05)0.90 (0.76-1.07)1.04 (0.87-1.24)0.800.86
MV RR1.00 (Reference)0.97 (0.85-1.10)0.87 (0.73-1.04)0.89 (0.75-1.06)1.04 (0.86-1.24)0.750.89
    Ice cream∥∥ (g/d)    Range01-16.917-32.933-65.9≥66
    Cases5618622306733
Age RR1.00 (Reference)0.98 (0.88-1.10)1.07 (0.87-1.32)1.13 (0.83-1.52)0.85 (0.59-1.23)0.670.82
MV RR1.00 (Reference)1.02 (0.90-1.14)1.12 (0.90-1.38)1.18 (0.85-1.63)0.91 (0.63-1.32)0.660.55
Nutrients
    Dietary calcium¶¶ (mg/d)    Range<500500-699.9700-899.9900-1,099.91,100-1,299.9≥1,300
    Cases287554562354182140
Age RR1.00 (Reference)1.02 (0.88-1.18)1.06 (0.87-1.28)1.00 (0.78-1.29)0.98 (0.79-1.21)1.17 (0.93-1.47)0.430.33
MV RR1.00 (Reference)1.02 (0.88-1.18)1.05 (0.89-1.24)1.00 (0.79-1.27)0.98 (0.79-1.21)1.17 (0.93-1.47)0.530.38
    Total calcium¶¶,*** (mg/d)    Range<500500-699.9700-899.9900-1,099.91,100-1,299.9≥1,300
    Cases119251274213169335
Age RR1.00 (Reference)1.01 (0.85-1.33)1.10 (0.87-1.40)1.08 (0.85-1.36)1.22 (0.95-1.56)1.18 (0.90-1.53)0.270.11
MV RR1.00 (Reference)1.05 (0.84-1.30)1.06 (0.85-1.34)1.04 (0.82-1.32)1.16 (0.90-1.48)1.08 (0.84-1.38)0.370.49
    Lactose (g/d)    Range<1010-19.920-29.9≥ 30
    Cases785793344210
Age RR1.00 (Reference)1.09 (0.97-1.22)1.06 (0.91-1.24)1.21 (1.03-1.42)0.550.17
MV RR1.00 (Reference)1.09 (0.97-1.22)1.07 (0.91-1.25)1.19 (1.01-1.40)0.580.19
    Dietary vitamin D†††,‡‡‡ (IU/d)    Range<100100-199.9200-299.9300-399.9400-499.9≥ 500
    Cases2266994271367124
Age RR1.00 (Reference)1.05 (0.90-1.22)1.11 (0.94-1.31)1.07 (0.84-1.36)1.60 (1.20-2.13)1.46 (0.80-2.65)0.150.02
MV RR1.00 (Reference)1.05 (0.90-1.23)1.10 (0.93-1.30)1.05 (0.83-1.33)1.56 (1.17-2.08)1.37 (0.78-2.40)0.210.04
    Total vitamin D†††,‡‡‡ (IU/d)    Range<100100-199.9200-299.9300-399.9400-499.9≥500
    Cases125346252113121339
Age RR1.00 (Reference)1.20 (0.97-1.48)1.28 (1.02-1.59)1.11 (0.80-1.54)1.33 (1.02-1.72)1.16 (0.94-1.44)0.490.29
MV RR1.00 (Reference)1.20 (0.97-1.48)1.26 (1.00-1.57)1.09 (0.79-1.51)1.27 (0.98-1.64)1.12 (0.90-1.38)0.550.60
  • NOTE: Multivariate RRs were adjusted for age at menarche (<13, 13, >13 years), menopausal status at baseline (premenopausal, postmenopausal, dubious), oral contraceptive use (ever, never), hormone replacement therapy use among postmenopausal women (never, past, current), parity (0, 1, 2, >2), BMI (<23, 23-<25, 25-<30, ≥30 kg/m2), smoking status (never, past, current), physical activity (low, medium, high), and energy intake (continuously), modeled identically across studies.

    Abbreviation: MV RR, multivariate RR.

  • * P value, test for between-studies heterogeneity is based on the highest category of intake for that food or nutrient.

  • P value, test for trend.

  • New York State Cohort was not included in the categories 250 to 499.9 and ≥500 g/d of milk because this study had no cases in that category.

  • § New York State Cohort was not included in the low-fat or whole-milk analyses because they did not measure consumption of these items separately.

  • Nurses' Health Study II was not included in the category ≥250 g/d of whole milk because this study had no cases in that category.

  • New York State Cohort is not included in the hard cheese or yogurt analyses because they did not measure consumption of these food items.

  • ** Adventist Health Study, Nurses' Health Study (part a) and Nurses' Health Study II were not included in the category ≥50 g/d of hard cheese because this study had no cases in that category.

  • †† Nurses' Health Study II was not included in the category ≥53 g/d of cottage cheese because this study had no cases in that category.

  • ‡‡ Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, New York State Cohort, and Swedish Mammography Cohort were not included in this analysis because they did not measure consumption of this item.

  • §§ Adventist Health Study and Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project Follow-up Study are not included in the yogurt analysis because they did not measure consumption of this food item.

  • ∥∥ Adventist Health Study, the Netherlands Cohort Study, and New York State Cohort are excluded from the ice cream analyses because they did not measure consumption of this food item. Nurses' Health Study II and Women's Health Study were not included in the category ≥66 g/d of ice cream because this study had no cases in that category.

  • ¶¶ Adventist Health Study was not included in the analysis of dietary or total calcium because this study had no cases in the reference group.

  • *** Canadian National Breast Screening Study, the Netherlands Cohort Study, Swedish Mammography Cohort are excluded from the total calcium and vitamin D analyses because they did not have supplement use data available for these nutrients.

  • ††† New York State Cohort, Nurses' Health Study (part a) were not included in the category ≥500 g/d of dietary vitamin D because this study had no cases in that category.

  • ‡‡‡ Adventist Health Study, Canadian National Breast Screening Study, the Netherlands Cohort Study, New York University Women's Health Study are excluded from the dietary and total (dietary and supplemental) vitamin D analyses because they did not assess vitamin D intake; Swedish Mammography Cohort is excluded from the total (dietary and supplemental) vitamin D analyses because they did not have supplement use data available.