Table 3.

Calcium intake from dietary and supplemental sources in relation to risk of advanced and fatal prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2002)

Dietary calcium intake, quartiles (mg/d)
Advanced prostate cancer
    RR* (95% CI)11.11 (0.84-1.46)1.22 (0.93-1.60)1.46 (1.12-1.90)0.003
Fatal prostate cancer
    RR* (95% CI)11.16 (0.82-1.66)1.26 (0.89-1.78)1.36 (0.97-1.92)0.08
Supplemental calcium intake (mg/d)


Advanced prostate cancer
    RR* (95% CI)11.08 (0.64-1.81)1.22 (0.93-1.62)0.17
Fatal prostate cancer
    RR* (95% CI)11.05 (0.54-2.04)1.51 (1.09-2.10)0.05
  • * Multivariable RR controlled for age, time period, body mass index at age 21, vigorous physical activity, height, cigarette pack-years in the previous 10 years, family history of prostate cancer, history of diabetes mellitus, race, and intake of total calories, red meat, fish, α-linolenic acid, zinc supplements, and tomato sauce; excluding men using calcium supplements <5 years at baseline.