Table 2.

RR and 95% CI of prostate cancer in relation to total calcium intake in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2002)

Total calcium (mg/d)
Ptrend
<500500-749750-9991,000-1,4991,500-1,999≥2,000
Total prostate cancer
    All cases
        Cases1831072109989820785
        RR (95% CI)0.98 (0.84-1.15)11.07 (0.98-1.16)1.03 (0.94-1.12)1.06 (0.91-1.23)1.28 (1.02-1.60)0.10
    Excluding men using calcium supplements <5 y
        Cases1821040101674315557
        RR (95% CI)0.98 (0.84-1.15)11.09 (1.00-1.18)1.03 (0.94-1.14)1.10 (0.93-1.31)1.28 (0.97-1.67)0.09
    Limited to men with a PSA test (1992-2002)
        Cases11474582067314441
        RR (95% CI)1.05 (0.86-1.28)11.08 (0.98-1.20)1.05 (0.95-1.17)1.06 (0.88-1.27)1.01 (0.73-1.38)0.65
Nonadvanced prostate cancer
    All cases
        Cases15291595276917063
        RR (95% CI)0.98 (0.83-1.17)11.07 (0.98-1.17)1.02 (0.92-1.12)1.01 (0.86-1.20)1.13 (0.88-1.47)0.55
    Excluding men using calcium supplements < 5 y
        Cases15188887963212538
        RR (95% CI)0.98 (0.82-1.17)11.09 (0.99-1.20)1.02 (0.92-1.13)1.03 (0.85-1.24)1.02 (0.73-1.4)0.80
    Limited to men with a PSA test (1992-2002)
        Cases10967474161113132
        RR (95% CI)1.11 (0.91-1.37)11.08 (0.97-1.20)1.06 (0.95-1.18)1.07 (0.88-1.29)0.87 (0.61-1.25)0.95
Advanced prostate cancer
    All cases
        Cases311571471293722
        RR (95% CI)0.99 (0.67-1.46)11.02 (0.81-1.28)1.05 (0.83-1.33)1.36 (0.94-1.95)2.02 (1.28-3.19)0.005
    Excluding men using calcium supplements <5 y
        Cases311521371113019
        RR (95% CI)1.01 (0.68-1.49)11.06 (0.84-1.33)1.12 (0.87-1.43)1.60 (1.07-2.38)2.60 (1.60-4.23)0.0003
    Limited to men with a PSA test (1992-2002)
        Cases5717962139
        RR (95% CI)0.48 (0.19-1.19)11.09 (0.79-1.51)1.03 (0.72-1.45)1.03 (0.57-1.88)2.21 (1.09-4.50)0.09
Fatal prostate cancer
    All cases
        Cases219481762614
        RR (95% CI)1.05 (0.65-1.69)10.95 (0.70-1.28)1.04 (0.77-1.42)1.56 (1.00-2.43)2.02 (1.14-3.58)0.01
    Excluding men using calcium supplements <5 y
        Cases219476632212
        RR (95% CI)1.03 (0.64-1.66)10.97 (0.71-1.31)1.04 (0.75-1.44)1.87 (1.17-3.01)2.43 (1.32-4.48)0.003
    Limited to men with a PSA test (1992-2002)
        Cases231342555
        RR (95% CI)0.45 (0.11-1.90)11.05 (0.79-1.51)0.89 (0.64-1.72)0.82 (0.52-1.53)2.55 (0.96-6.76)0.34
  • NOTE: Multivariable RR controlled for age, time period, body mass index at age 21, vigorous physical activity, height, cigarette pack-years in the previous 10 years, family history of prostate cancer, history of diabetes mellitus, race, and intake of total calories, red meat, fish, α-linolenic acid, zinc supplements, and tomato sauce.