Table 1.

Serum levels of YKL-40 (μg/L) in patients with cancer and the percentage of patients with elevated serum YKL-40

DiagnosisnSerum YKL-40High YKL-40 (%)*Reference
Primary breast cancer27157*** (22-688)19Johansen et al. (91)
Metastatic breast cancer, all5480*** (20-560)41Johansen et al. (83)
    Soft tissue1059 (29-433)20
    Bone2575*** (21-560)35
    Viscera19157*** (20-468)61
Metastatic breast cancer, all10065*** (20-430)31Jensen et al. (90)
    Nodes and skin only3651 (20-267)9
    Bone2861*** (24-310)24
    Viscera36110*** (21-430)57
Colorectal cancer, all60386*** (27-1,298)26Cintin et al. (84)
    Dukes A5873** (27-295)16
    Dukes B22386*** (27-604)26
    Dukes C17577*** (27-582)19
    Dukes D147119*** (27-1,298)39
Glioblastoma multiforme45130*** (38-654)72Tanwar et al. (31)
Lower grade gliomas20101*** (50-225)57
Ovarian cancer, all5094*** (20-517)72Dupont et al. (81)
Ovarian cancer, stages I-II3175*** (20-517)65Dupont et al. (81)
Ovarian cancer, stage III47168*** (32-1,808)74Høgdall et al. (89)
Ovarian cancer, relapse7394*** (20-1,970)55Dehn et al. (87)
Small cell lung cancer, all13182*** (23-1,188)32Johansen et al. (92)
    Local disease5971* (23-417)22
    Extensive disease72101*** (27-1,188)40
Metastatic renal cell cancer58235*** (45-1,896)83Geertsen et al. (88)
Metastatic prostate cancer153112*** (20-2,080)43Brasso et al. (86)
Metastatic malignant melanoma11095*** (20-1,262)45Schmidt et al. (93)
  • NOTE: Values are median (range). *, P < 0.02; **, P < 0.01, and ***, P < 0.001 compared with controls (Mann-Whitney test).

  • * The percentage of patients with elevated serum YKL-40 levels in relation to the serum YKL-40 level in healthy subjects adjusted for age. The normal reference region was calculated on the log-transformed serum or plasma YKL-40 levels obtained from healthy subjects (ages 18-79 years; n = 260 for RIA values and n = 245 for ELISA values). The upper 95th percent confidence limit was chosen for the limit and adjusted for age (103).

  • Preoperative levels.

  • RIA analysis but the data were corrected to ELISA values (YKL-40ELISA = YKL-40RIA × 0.479). All the other studies used the ELISA method (68).