Table 2.

RR of prostate cancer by frequency of intake of lycopene and top food sources of lycopene

Nutrient/food itemCategory of intake
Ptrend
12345
Lycopene
    Quintile median (μg/d)5,0527,5559,65012,27117,5930.33
    No. cases269287268271243
    RR (95% CI)*1.001.10 (0.93, 1.30)1.06 (0.89, 1.25)1.07 (0.90, 1.27)0.95 (0.79, 1.13)
Lycopene from processed sources (including fat)
    Quintile median (μg/d)3,0094,8726,4388,35012,6470.14
    No. cases280294261270233
    RR (95% CI)*1.001.08 (0.92, 1.27)0.98 (0.83, 1.17)1.03 (0.87, 1.22)0.90 (0.75, 1.08)
Total tomato servings
    Quintile median (serving/d)0.330.530.720.971.470.36
    No. cases251285287269246
    RR (95% CI)*1.001.16 (0.97, 1.38)1.05 (0.87, 1.26)1.05 (0.87, 1.26)0.99 (0.81, 1.21)
Raw tomatoes
    Servings<2.5/mo2.5/mo to 1/wk>1/wk to 2/wk>2/wk to 3/wk>3/wk0.84
    No. cases164231411207325
    RR (95% CI)*1.001.10 (0.90, 1.34)1.08 (0.90, 1.30)0.98 (0.80, 1.21)1.04 (0.86, 1.27)
Canned tomatoes
    Servings<1/mo1-3/mo1/wk≥2/wk0.50
    No. cases445587162144
    RR (95% CI)*1.001.08 (0.95, 1.22)0.93 (0.78, 1.12)0.96 (0.79, 1.16)
Ketchup
    Servings<1/mo1-3/mo1-2/wk>2/wk0.68
    No. cases207408449274
    RR (95% CI)*1.001.04 (0.88, 1.23)1.00 (0.85, 1.19)0.99 (0.82, 1.19)
Spaghetti/tomato sauce
    Servings<1/mo1-3/mo1/wk≥ 2/wk0.65
    No. cases149708287194
    RR (95% CI)*1.000.97 (0.81, 1.16)0.90 (0.73, 1.10)0.96 (0.76, 1.19)
Tomato and vegetable juice
    Servings<1/mo1-3/mo≥1/wk0.89
    No. cases743373222
    RR (95% CI)*1.001.03 (0.91, 1.17)1.02 (0.87, 1.19)
Pizza
    Servings<0.5/mo0.5-1/mo2-3/mo≥1/wk0.06
    No. cases204599359176
    RR (95% CI)*1.000.97 (0.82, 1.14)0.94 (0.78, 1.12)0.83 (0.67, 1.03)
Lasagna
    Servings<0.5/mo0.5/mo1/mo>1/mo0.81
    No. cases379412400147
    RR (95% CI)*1.000.93 (0.81, 1.08)1.00 (0.86, 1.15)0.97 (0.79, 1.18)
Chili
    Servings<0.5/mo0.5/mo1/mo>1/mo0.38
    No. cases219287443389
    RR (95% CI)*1.001.05 (0.88, 1.26)1.08 (0.91, 1.27)1.09 (0.92, 1.29)
  • * Adjusted for age, total energy, race, study center, family history of prostate cancer, body mass index, smoking status, physical activity, supplemental vitamin E intake, total fat intake, red meat intake, history of diabetes, aspirin use, and previous number of screening exams within the follow-up period.

  • Main food contributors include spaghetti sauce, chili with beans, pizza, beef stews and pies, canned tomatoes, lasagna, tomato/vegetable soup, as well as minor amounts from other food items and mixed dishes.