Table 1.

Demographic characteristics and hormone levels of subjects (cases and subcohort)

Prostate cancer cases
Subcohort (n = 1,859)
Aggressive* (n = 88)Nonaggressive (n = 430)
Age at baseline (y)
    <502 (2%)18 (4%)585 (31%)
    50-5914 (16%)120 (28%)577 (31%)
    60+72 (82%)292 (68%)697 (37%)
Country of birth
    Australia/New Zealand/United Kingdom72 (82%)342 (80%)1,345 (72%)
    Italy13 (15%)49 (11%)263 (14%)
    Greece3 (3%)39 (9%)251 (14%)
Smoking
    Never33 (38%)176 (41%)735 (40%)
    Former49 (56%)209 (49%)830 (45%)
    Current6 (7%)45 (11%)294 (16%)
Alcohol (g/d)
    No alcohol25 (28%)88 (21%)341 (18%)
    1-3949 (56%)275 (64%)1,195 (64%)
    40+14 (16%)66 (15%)321 (17%)
BMI
    Mean (SD)27.9 (3.8)27.1 (3.5)27.2 (3.6)
Hormone and PSA levels, median (IQ range)
PSA (ng/mL)4.6 (2.1-18.4)3.4 (1.9-6.9)0.8 (0.5-1.5)
T (nmol/L)15.0 (11.8-17.7)15.6 (13-19.3)15.7 (12.3-19.5)
DHEAS (μmol/L)2.0 (1.1-3.1)2.8 (1.7-4.1)3.4 (2.2-5.1)
SHBG (nmol/L)39.0 (29.4-46.1)38.2 (31.1-46.6)35.8 (27.8-44.9)
A (nmol/L)3.1 (2.3-4.2)3.7 (2.7-4.6)3.7 (2.8-4.8)
E2 (pmol/L)101 (80-124)105 (88-126)105 (89-125)
AG (ng/mL)14.0 (8.1-20.5)13.4 (9.7-18.9)14.7 (10.2-20.1)
E2/T (×10−3)6.9 (5.5-9.0)6.7 (5.5-8.2)6.6 (5.4-8.5)
Free T (nmol/L)0.35 (0.30-0.39)0.36 (0.31-0.42)0.37 (0.31-0.45)
Free E2 (pmol/L)2.9 (2.4-3.4)3.0 (2.5-3.6)3.1 (2.5-3.6)
  • Abbreviations: T, total testosterone; A, androstenedione; E2, total estradiol; AG, androstanediol glucuronide; BMI, body mass index.

  • * A tumor was classified as aggressive if Gleason score was higher than 7 or if stage was advanced (T4 or N+ or M+). We were not able to define aggressiveness for six cases because Gleason score and tumor stage were not available (clinical diagnoses only).

  • The number of missing measures were 25 for PSA, 24 for total testosterone, 47 for DHEAS, 2 for SHBG, 8 for androstenedione, 81 for total estradiol, and 200 for androstanediol glucuronide.

  • Derived from the total concentration (bound + free), concentration of SHBG using the law of mass action under the assumption of a fixed albumin concentration of 40 g/L (5.77 × 10−4 mol/L), and the association constants of de Ronde et al. (14).