Table 1.

Total cotinine and total NNAL in the urine of Moldovan children with different reported exposures

GroupNo. children
Mean ± SD
In the groupCotinine detectedNNAL detectedCotinine, ng/mL*NNAL, pmol/mL
All80776916 ± 200.09 ± 0.077
No exposure reported2220157.5 ± 7.00.049 ± 0.016
Exposure reported58575419 ± 220.1 ± 0.083
    At home7664.6 ± 5.80.061 ± 0.036
    Other20202011 ± 7.90.073 ± 0.031
    Both31312827 ± 280.13 ± 0.1
  • * To convert ng to nmol, divide by 176.

  • Exposure in enclosed facilities, outdoors, or indoors other than the child’s home.