Cancer Incidence | ||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Total | Digestive System | |||||||

n (cases) | RR (95% CI) | n (cases) | RR (95% CI) | |||||

Whites (≤1 risk factor) | 1,821 | 1.00 | 465 | 1.00 | ||||

Whites (≥2 risk factors) | 2,820 | 1.08 (1.01-1.04) | 819 | 1.21 (1.08-1.36) | ||||

Blacks (≤1 risk factor) | 18 | 0.95 (0.60-1.51) | 4 | 0.84 (0.32-2.26) | ||||

Blacks (≥2 risk factors) | 45 | 1.57 (1.16-2.11) | 19 | 2.59 (1.63-4.11) | ||||

Cancer Mortality | ||||||||

Total | Digestive System | |||||||

n (cases) | RR (95% CI) | n (cases) | RR (95% CI) | |||||

Whites (≤1 risk factor) | 874 | 1.00 | 268 | 1.00 | ||||

Whites (≥2 risk factors) | 1,349 | 1.09 (1.00-1.18) | 398 | 1.02 (0.87-1.20) | ||||

Blacks (≤1 risk factor) | 14 | 1.55 (0.91-2.62) | 3 | 1.06 (0.34-3.31) | ||||

Blacks (≥2 risk factors) | 30 | 2.27 (1.57-3.28) | 13 | 2.99 (1.70-5.26) |

NOTE: Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to control for multiple variables simultaneously and to compute hazard ratios to estimate RR and 95% confidence intervals. Age was controlled for in 1-year increments and time period in 2-year intervals. The following covariables were included in the models: height, region, BMI, physical activity, smoking history, alcohol, and total calories, red meat, calcium, vitamin D, retinol, and total fruits and vegetables. Each of the following was considered a risk factor for hypovitaminosis D: residence in the Northeastern United States, total vitamin D intake <400 IU/d, BMI >25 kg/m

^{2}, and physical activity below the median.