Table 4.

RR of cancer incidence and mortality of Blacks compared with Whites jointly by risk factors of hypovitaminosis D in HPFS 1986-2002

Cancer Incidence
Total
Digestive System
n (cases)RR (95% CI)n (cases)RR (95% CI)
Whites (≤1 risk factor)1,8211.004651.00
Whites (≥2 risk factors)2,8201.08 (1.01-1.04)8191.21 (1.08-1.36)
Blacks (≤1 risk factor)180.95 (0.60-1.51)40.84 (0.32-2.26)
Blacks (≥2 risk factors)451.57 (1.16-2.11)192.59 (1.63-4.11)

Cancer Mortality
Total
Digestive System

n (cases)
RR (95% CI)
n (cases)
RR (95% CI)
Whites (≤1 risk factor)8741.002681.00
Whites (≥2 risk factors)1,3491.09 (1.00-1.18)3981.02 (0.87-1.20)
Blacks (≤1 risk factor)141.55 (0.91-2.62)31.06 (0.34-3.31)
Blacks (≥2 risk factors)302.27 (1.57-3.28)132.99 (1.70-5.26)
  • NOTE: Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to control for multiple variables simultaneously and to compute hazard ratios to estimate RR and 95% confidence intervals. Age was controlled for in 1-year increments and time period in 2-year intervals. The following covariables were included in the models: height, region, BMI, physical activity, smoking history, alcohol, and total calories, red meat, calcium, vitamin D, retinol, and total fruits and vegetables. Each of the following was considered a risk factor for hypovitaminosis D: residence in the Northeastern United States, total vitamin D intake <400 IU/d, BMI >25 kg/m2, and physical activity below the median.