Table 3.

RR of cancer mortality among Blacks compared with Whites in HPFS 1986-2002

WhitesBlacksP
Person-years636,4086,883
Total cancer mortality
    Cases2,19544
    Age-adjusted RR1.001.99 (1.48-2.68)<0.0001
    Multivariable-adjusted RR*1.001.89 (1.40-2.56)<0.0001
Total cancer mortality (excluding prostate cancer mortality)
    Cases1,89238
    Age-adjusted RR1.001.96 (1.42-2.70)<0.0001
    Multivariable-adjusted RR*1.001.82 (1.31-2.51)0.0003
Digestive system cancer mortality
    Cases65516
    Age-adjusted RR1.002.34 (1.43-3.85)0.0008
    Multivariable-adjusted RR*1.002.24 (1.35-3.70)0.002
  • * Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to control for multiple variables simultaneously and to compute hazard ratios to estimate RR and 95% confidence intervals. Age was controlled for in 1-year increments and time period in 2-year intervals. The following covariables were included in the models: height, region, BMI, physical activity, smoking history, alcohol, and total calories, red meat, calcium, vitamin D, retinol, and total fruits and vegetables.

  • Cancers of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, colon, and rectum.