Table 2.

RR of cancer incidence among Blacks compared with the Whites in HPFS 1986-2002

WhitesBlacksP
Person years597,4416,379
Total cancer incidence
    Cases7,01999
    Age-adjusted RR1.001.34 (1.10-1.63)0.004
    Multivariable-adjusted RR*1.001.32 (1.08-1.61)0.007
Total cancer incidence (excluding non-aggressive prostate cancer)
    Cases4,62863
    Age-adjusted RR1.001.32 (1.03-1.69)0.03
    Multivariable-adjusted RR*1.001.26 (0.98-1.62)0.07
Total cancer incidence (excluding all prostate cancer)
    Cases4,13554
    Age-adjusted RR1.001.26 (0.96-1.64)0.10
    Multivariable-adjusted RR*1.001.19 (0.91-1.56)0.21
Digestive system cancer incidence
    Cases1,27523
    Age-adjusted RR1.001.74 (1.15-2.63)0.009
    Multivariable-adjusted RR*1.001.67 (1.10-2.53)0.016
  • * Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to control for multiple variables simultaneously and to compute hazard ratios to estimate RR and 95% confidence intervals. Age was controlled for in 1-year increments and time period in 2-year intervals. The following covariables were included in the models: height (quintiles), region (South, Northeast-Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, and West), BMI (six categories), physical activity (quintiles), smoking history [never, quit <10 years, quit ≥10 years, current (1-14, 15-14, and ≥25 cigarettes per day)], alcohol (five categories), and, for dietary variables, quintiles of total calories, red meat, calcium, vitamin D, retinol, and total fruits and vegetables.

  • Cancers of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, colon, and rectum.