Table 3.

Multivariate RRs for intakes of vitamins A, C, and E, and carotenoids

Quartile 1Quartile 2Quartile 3Quartile 4P test for trendP test for between-studies heterogeneity*
Total vitamin A
Median, IU/d (women; men)(6,644; 7,306)(10,210; 11,284)(13,852; 15,872)(20,320; 24,856)
RR (95% CI)
    NHS women1.001.03 (0.58-1.81)1.48 (0.86-2.52)1.40 (0.80-2.47)0.17
    HPFS men1.000.78 (0.47-1.29)0.82 (0.49-1.35)0.41 (0.22-0.78)0.009
    Pooled1.000.88 (0.60-1.28)1.09 (0.61-1.95)0.77 (0.23-2.54)0.780.005
Dietary vitamin A
Median, IU/d (women; men)(5,852; 6,451)(8,582; 9,368)(11,358; 12,628)(16,134; 18,724)
RR (95% CI)
    NHS women1.001.04 (0.61-1.76)1.12 (0.67-1.87)1.37 (0.83-2.27)0.17
    HPFS men1.001.05 (0.65-1.71)0.71 (0.42-1.19)0.47 (0.26-0.84)0.003
    Pooled1.001.05 (0.73-1.49)0.89 (0.57-1.39)0.81 (0.28-2.33)0.720.006
Total vitamin C
Median, mg/d (women; men)(96; 114)(154; 190)(242; 328)(633; 907)
RR (95% CI)
    NHS women1.001.05 (0.63-1.76)0.91 (0.53-1.57)0.89 (0.51-1.56)0.60
    HPFS men1.000.75 (0.45-1.26)0.77 (0.44-1.35)0.97 (0.55-1.71)0.64
    Pooled1.000.89 (0.62-1.29)0.84 (0.57-1.24)0.93 (0.62-1.38)0.950.84
Dietary vitamin C
Median, mg/d (women; men)(79; 91)(116; 137)(148; 177)(196; 243)
RR (95% CI)
    NHS women1.000.81 (0.48-1.38)0.94 (0.57-1.55)1.20 (0.74-1.95)0.29
    HPFS men1.000.58 (0.34-0.98)0.70 (0.43-1.15)0.51 (0.30-0.88)0.03
    Pooled1.000.69 (0.47-0.99)0.81 (0.57-1.15)0.79 (0.35-1.82)0.760.02
Total vitamin E
Median, mg/d (women; men)(6; 8)(9; 11)(14; 18)(103; 162)
RR (95% CI)
    NHS women1.000.94 (0.54-1.65)1.16 (0.65-2.08)1.20 (0.66-2.16)0.55
    HPFS men1.000.98 (0.59-1.63)0.65 (0.36-1.19)0.67 (0.36-1.24)0.38
    Pooled1.000.96 (0.66-1.40)0.88 (0.49-1.55)0.90 (0.51-1.60)0.740.18
Dietary vitamin E
Median, mg/d (women; men)(6; 8)(7; 9)(8; 11)(10; 13)
RR (95% CI)
    NHS women1.001.46 (0.85-2.49)1.66 (0.99-2.81)1.31 (0.75-2.28)0.41
    HPFS men1.001.32 (0.78-2.23)0.88 (0.50-1.54)0.97 (0.56-1.70)0.56
    Pooled1.001.38 (0.95-2.02)1.22 (0.65-2.28)1.13 (0.76-1.67)0.970.46
α-Carotene
Median, μg/d (women; men)(254; 351)(444; 577)(707; 898)(1,327; 1,668)
RR (95% CI)
    NHS women1.000.82 (0.49-1.38)1.23 (0.77-1.96)0.90 (0.54-1.49)0.89
    HPFS men1.001.36 (0.83-2.22)0.99 (0.59-1.67)0.53 (0.29-0.98)0.007
    Pooled1.001.07 (0.65-1.74)1.12 (0.79-1.58)0.71 (0.42-1.19)0.260.19
β-Carotene
Median, μg/d (women; men)(1,963; 2,371)(3,244; 2,718)(4,678; 5,293)(7,242; 8,518)
RR (95% CI)
    NHS women1.001.08 (0.63-1.84)1.38 (0.83-2.29)1.24 (0.74-2.09)0.36
    HPFS men1.000.91 (0.55-1.50)0.81 (0.49-1.36)0.57 (0.32-0.99)0.04
    Pooled1.000.98 (0.68-1.42)1.06 (0.63-1.78)0.84 (0.39-1.82)0.700.04
β-Cryptoxanthin
Median, μg/d (women; men)(24; 21)(53; 52)(86; 94)(152; 179)
RR (95% CI)
    NHS women1.000.87 (0.52-1.47)1.11 (0.68-1.82)1.02 (0.61-1.69)0.76
    HPFS men1.000.84 (0.52-1.38)0.72 (0.44-1.19)0.48 (0.27-0.84)0.008
    Pooled1.000.86 (0.60-1.23)0.90 (0.59-1.37)0.70 (0.34-1.47)0.430.05
Lutein/zeaxanthin
Median, μg/d (women; men)(1,552; 1,523)(2,623; 2,629)(4,111; 3,794)(7,248; 6,044)
RR (95% CI)
    NHS women1.001.22 (0.71-2.08)1.54 (0.93-2.57)1.36 (0.81-2.29)0.30
    HPFS men1.000.77 (0.46-1.27)0.92 (0.57-1.48)0.46 (0.26-0.82)0.02
    Pooled1.000.96 (0.61-1.51)1.18 (0.70-1.97)0.80 (0.28-2.30)0.620.006
Lycopene§
Median, μg/d (women; men)(3,668; 4,192)(5,936; 7,082)(8,308; 10,220)(12,296; 16,180)
RR (95% CI)
    NHS women1.000.90 (0.51-1.57)0.88 (0.51-1.54)0.90 (0.51-1.57)0.76
    HPFS men1.000.90 (0.55-1.49)0.77 (0.46-1.29)0.71 (0.42-1.20)0.18
    Pooled1.000.90 (0.62-1.31)0.82 (0.56-1.20)0.79 (0.54-1.16)0.200.56
  • NOTE: Multivariate RRs were adjusted for the same covariates listed in Table 2.

  • * For the highest category.

  • From food and supplement.

  • Median (women; men): median for quartile from women in the NHS and median for quartile from men in the HPFS.

  • § In the NHS, the analysis for lycopene was started in 1984, and 106 cases were included because the main food sources were not assessed in 1980.