Table 2.

Multivariate RRs for consumption of fruits and vegetables

Food groupCategories (servings)P test for trendP test for between-studies heterogeneity*
Total fruits and vegetables, no. of cases (women; men),<3/d (24; 20)3-4.9/d (41; 37)5-5.9/d (18; 17)≥6/d (49; 42)
RR (95% CI)
    NHS women1.000.73 (0.44-1.23)0.69 (0.36-1.32)1.17 (0.66-2.07)0.25
    HPFS men1.000.61 (0.35-1.07)0.51 (0.26-1.00)0.45 (0.25-0.81)0.02
    Pooled1.000.67 (0.46-0.98)0.60 (0.38-0.95)0.73 (0.28-1.87)0.760.02
Total fruits, no. of cases (women; men)<1/d (23; 19)1-1.9/d (32; 37)2-2.9/d (40; 36)≥3/d (37; 24)
RR (95% CI)
    NHS women1.000.54 (0.31-0.94)0.68 (0.39-1.17)0.78 (0.43-1.40)0.94
    HPFS men1.000.80 (0.45-1.41)0.76 (0.42-1.35)0.47 (0.24-0.91)0.02
    Pooled1.000.65 (0.44-0.97)0.71 (0.48-1.06)0.62 (0.38-1.02)0.350.26
Total vegetables, no. of cases (women; men)<2/d (33; 31)2-2.9/d (44; 32)3-3.9/d (37; 27)≥4/d (18; 26)
RR (95% CI)
    NHS women1.001.26 (0.78-2.01)1.61 (0.94-2.67)1.17 (0.62-2.20)0.36
    HPFS men1.000.73 (0.44-1.22)0.69 (0.40-1.18)0.44 (0.25-0.77)0.005
    Pooled1.000.97 (0.57-1.65)1.06 (0.46-2.44)0.71 (0.27-1.86)0.630.02
Total citrus fruits, no. of cases (women; men)<4/wk (44; 47)4-6.9/wk (29; 18)1-1.9/d (51; 44)≥2/d (8; 7)
RR (95% CI)
    NHS women1.000.84 (0.52-1.34)1.06 (0.70-1.61)1.00 (0.46-2.18)0.83
    HPFS men1.000.59 (0.34-1.03)0.86 (0.56-1.33)0.59 (0.26-1.34)0.26
    Pooled1.000.72 (0.50-1.04)0.96 (0.71-1.30)0.78 (0.44-1.37)0.510.36
Cruciferous vegetables, no. of cases (women; men)<2/wk (39; 54)2-2.9/wk (43; 25)3-4.9/wk (33; 18)≥5/wk (17; 19)
RR (95% CI)
    NHS women1.001.55 (1.00-2.40)1.16 (0.72-1.86)1.04 (0.58-1.86)0.92
    HPFS men1.000.79 (0.49-1.28)0.48 (0.27-0.83)0.67 (0.39-1.16)0.06
    Pooled1.001.12 (0.58-2.15)0.75 (0.31-1.79)0.82 (0.54-1.26)0.250.28
Green leafy vegetables, no. of cases (women; men)<3/wk (42; 36)3-4.9/wk (34; 35)5-6.9/wk (29; 25)≥1/d (27; 20)
RR (95% CI)
    NHS women1.001.26 (0.78-2.03)1.45 (0.88-2.39)1.49 (0.90-2.48)0.09
    HPFS men1.001.24 (0.77-2.00)1.09 (0.65-1.84)0.72 (0.41-1.27)0.23
    Pooled1.001.25 (0.89-1.75)1.26 (0.88-1.81)1.05 (0.51-2.13)0.870.06
Vitamin C–rich fruits and vegetables, no. of cases (women; men)<4/wk (22; 25)4-6.9/wk (17; 16)1-1.9/d (69; 52)≥2/d (24; 23)
RR (95% CI)
    NHS women1.000.52 (0.27-0.98)0.83 (0.50-1.37)0.78 (0.41-1.45)0.97
    HPFS men1.000.48 (0.25-0.90)0.53 (0.32-0.87)0.43 (0.24-0.79)0.04
    Pooled1.000.49 (0.32-0.78)0.66 (0.43-1.02)0.58 (0.32-1.03)0.320.18
Legumes, no. of cases (women; men)<1/wk (47; 47)1-2.9/wk (72; 53)≥3/wk (13; 16)
RR (95% CI)
    NHS women1.001.27 (0.86-1.86)1.26 (0.66-2.40)0.41
    HPFS men1.000.97 (0.64-1.47)0.61 (0.34-1.12)0.11
    Pooled1.001.12 (0.84-1.48)0.87 (0.43-1.76)0.760.11
Potatoes, no. of cases (women; men)<2/wk (39; 34)2-3.9/wk (59; 45)4-4.9/wk (15; 16)≥5/wk (19; 21)
RR (95% CI)
    NHS women1.001.09 (0.71-1.66)0.84 (0.45-1.57)0.73 (0.40-1.34)0.26
    HPFS men1.001.00 (0.63-1.58)0.93 (0.49-1.75)0.69 (0.38-1.26)0.22
    Pooled1.001.05 (0.77-1.43)0.88 (0.56-1.38)0.71 (0.46-1.09)0.090.89
  • NOTE: In the NHS, multivariate RRs were adjusted for BMI (<25, 25-26.9, 27-29.9, or ≥30 kg/m2), history of hypertension (yes, no), parity (continuous), history of diabetes (yes, no), smoking status (never, 1-19, 20-39, ≥40 pack-years), multivitamin use (never, past, current <5 yr, current ≥5 yr of use), alcohol intake (continuous), and total energy intake (continuous). In the HPFS, multivariate RRs were adjusted for BMI (<25, 25-26.9, 27-29.9, or ≥30 kg/m2), history of hypertension (yes, no), smoking status (never, 1-19, 20-39, ≥40 pack-years), multivitamin use (never, past, current <5 yr, current ≥5 yr of use), and total energy intake (continuous).

  • * For the highest category.

  • Number of cases (women; men): a number of cases for women in the NHS and for men in the HPFS.

  • Potatoes and legumes were excluded from total fruit and vegetable group and total vegetable group.