Table 1.

Characteristics of patients in sample

Control group (n = 87)Incentive group (n = 92)P, test of differences
Demographics
    Average age (y)52.253.10.52
    Male (%)97.790.80.05
    White (%)22.428.40.36
    Highest grade of school completed
        Some high school or lower (%)12.918.20.34
        Completed high school or GED (%)43.539.80.62
        Some college or higher (%)43.542.10.84
    Total annual household income from all sources
        % Total annual household income <$15,000 (%)51.348.80.75
        % Total annual household income $15,000-$29,999 (%)27.534.20.36
Covariates
    No. cigarettes/d20.523.20.12
    Years smoked29.231.40.24
    Longest quit attempt in last year (d)98.289.30.83
    Distance from Veterans Affairs Medical Center (self-report of minutes traveled)48.742.50.15
    Fagerstrom addiction score
        ≥7, high degree of dependence (%)37.231.80.47
    Heavy smokers, >2 packs/d (%)16.117.40.82
    Intrinsic motivation score3.63.60.98
    Extrinsic motivation score2.42.50.39