Table 1.

Smoking history and psychosocial characteristics of sample

Smoking historyN = 154
Age started smoking (y)16.8 (5.8)*
Daily cigarettes smoked before quitting at or before surgery24.6 (12.2)
Using nicotine replacement at baseline13.1%
At least one other smoker in the home33.1%
Quit duration before surgery (d)35.0 (41.7)
Smoking status (without adjustment for false reporting)
    3-mo follow-up (n = 123)29 (23.6%)
    6-mo follow-up (n = 103)31 (30.1%)
    12-mo follow-up (n = 84)28 (33.3%)
    Any lapse since surgery (n = 154)63 (40.9%)
Smoking status (adjusted for false reporting)
    3-mo follow-up (n = 123)33 (26.8%)
    6-mo follow-up (n = 103)31 (30.1%)
    12-mo follow-up (n = 84)31 (36.9%)
    Any lapse since surgery (n = 154)66 (42.9%)
Estimated smoking status (extrapolated from rate of underreporting)§
    3-mo follow-up (n = 123)(30.1%)
    6-mo follow-up (n = 103)(36.6%)
    12-mo follow-up (n = 84)(39.6%)
    Any lapse since surgery (n = 154)(45.1%)
Smoking status (adjusted for false reporting, and assuming dropouts were smokers)‡,
    3-mo follow-up (n = 133)43 (32.3%)
    6-mo follow-up (n = 119)47 (39.5%)
    12-mo follow-up (n = 93)40 (43.0%)
    Any lapse since surgery (n = 154)78 (50.6%)
Psychological characteristics
    Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine dependence >448.7%
    Beck Depression Inventory ≥16**27.9%
    Questionnaire of Smoking Urges—Appetitive2.16 (1.18)
    Questionnaire of Smoking Urges—Aversive1.78 (1.06)
  • * Mean (SD).

  • Median quit duration was 20 days.

  • Adjustment was made only among 44% of cases in which biochemical verification was available.

  • § Rates for the entire sample are estimated based on the rate of underreporting in the 44% of cases across all time points in which biochemical verification was available. Only percentages are reported because values are extrapolated.

  • Patients who could have provided follow-up data but did not were coded as smoking.

  • Mean, 4.52; SD, 2.23.

  • ** Mean, 11.3; SD, 7.9.