Table 2.

Maternal exposures during pregnancy, IAL cases and controls, Brazil, 1999-2005

IAL, n (%)Controls, n (%)Crude OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)*
Tobacco37 (18.3)101 (23.0)0.75 (0.49-1.15)0.89 (0.631-1.25)
Marijuana7 (3.5)17 (3.9)0.90 (0.37-2.20)0.87 (0.63-1.20)
Pain relievers
    Dipyrone124 (61.4)228 (51.9)1.48 (1.05-2.08)1.45 (1.02-2.06)
    Others50 (24.8)111 (25.2)0.97 (0.66-1.43)
Antibiotics
    Amoxicillin25 (12.4)62 (14.1)0.86 (0.52-1.42)0.88 (0.63-1.25)
    Ciprofloxacilin (quinolone)5 (2.5)11 (2.5)0.99 (0.34-2.89)0.94 (0.32-2.77)
Vitamins/iron supplement73 (36.1)169 (38.4)0.77 (0.52-1.14)0.90 (0.63-1.28)
Folic acid28 (13.9)47 (10.7)1.35 (0.82-2.22)1.22 (0.73-2.05)
Antiemetic18 (8.9)25 (5.7)1.62 (0.86-3.04)1.69 (0.87-3.28)
Antifungic (metronidazole)38 (13.9)44 (10.1)1.45 (0.87-2.40)1.39 (0.82-2.34)
Abortive drugs
    All40 (19.8)90 (20.5)0.96 (0.63-1.45)0.81 (0.53-1.25)
    Misoprostol6 (3.0)7 (1.8)1.28 (0.40-4.06)1.23 (0.38-4.02)
Hormones§18 (8.9)4 (0.9)10.66 (3.56-31.94)8.76 (2.85-26.93)
Herbal infusions4 (2.0)5 (1.1)1.76 (0.47-6.62)1.93 (0.49-7.58)
Pesticides91 (45.3)119 (27.0)2.23 (1.58-3.16)2.18 (1.53-2.13)
  • * Adjusted for sex, income, maternal age, and birth weight.

  • Paracetamol, aspirin, hyoscine, and codeine.

  • Misoprostol, herbal infusions, and other compounds used as abortive.

  • § Oral contraceptives, antiabortive progesterone treatment, and thyroid hormones.