Table 3.

Multivariate RR of advanced prostate cancer according to quintiles of western pattern and meat intake by age (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 1986-2000)

Quintile western pattern/meat intake
P for trend
1 (low)2345 (high)
Age <65 y
    Western pattern
        Cases2823302725
        Multivariate RR*1.000.84 (0.48-1.46)1.05 (0.62-1.78)0.88 (0.51-1.52)0.76 (0.43-1.34)0.39
        Multivariate RR* + red meat1.000.80 (0.46-1.41)0.94 (0.54-1.62)0.71 (0.40-1.28)0.53 (0.28-0.98)0.04
        Multivariate RR* + processed meat1.000.95 (0.54-1.68)1.25 (0.72-2.19)1.02 (0.56-1.87)0.79 (0.40-1.55)0.56
Age ≥ 65 y
    Western pattern
        Cases8070716169
        Multivariate RR*1.000.91 (0.66-1.26)1.07 (0.77-1.48)1.05 (0.75-1.47)1.34 (0.96-1.88)0.07
        Multivariate RR* + red meat1.000.91 (0.66-1.26)1.06 (0.76-1.48)1.04 (0.73-1.49)1.30 (0.90-1.88)0.13
        Multivariate RR* + processed meat1.000.86 (0.62-1.19)0.95 (0.68-1.33)0.88 (0.61-1.28)1.08 (0.73-1.58)0.68
Age <65 y
    Total red meat
        Cases2221202941
        Multivariate RR*1.000.89 (0.49-1.62)0.79 (0.43-1.46)1.23 (0.70-2.16)1.68 (0.99-2.87)0.003
        Multivariate RR* + western pattern1.000.94 (0.51-1.73)0.88 (0.47-1.66)1.44 (0.79-2.61)2.12 (1.18-3.78)0.0002
Processed meat
        Cases3028192234
        Multivariate RR*1.000.62 (0.37-1.05)0.46 (0.26-0.83)0.55 (0.31-0.97)0.78 (0.47-1.30)0.94
        Multivariate RR* + western pattern1.000.61 (0.36-1.04)0.46 (0.25-0.84)0.56 (0.30-1.02)0.85 (0.47-1.56)0.55
Age ≥65 y
    Total red meat
        Cases7581705372
        Multivariate RR*1.001.23 (0.89-1.68)1.04 (0.75-1.44)0.97 (0.68-1.39)1.35 (0.97-1.87)0.20
        Multivariate RR* + western pattern1.001.20 (0.87-1.66)0.99 (0.71-1.40)0.91 (0.63-1.32)1.21 (0.85-1.74)0.54
    Processed meat
        Cases5472727479
        Multivariate RR*1.001.04 (0.73-1.49)1.35 (0.94-1.93)1.41 (0.98-2.01)1.55 (1.08-2.22)0.004
        Multivariate RR* + western pattern1.001.06 (0.74-1.52)1.38 (0.95-2.00)1.42 (0.97-2.08)1.51 (1.00-2.26)0.03
  • NOTE: Numbers in parentheses are 95% CIs. Body mass index (in quintiles). Total red meat intake is defined as the sum of the following meat items on the FFQs: regular hamburger, lean hamburger, beef, lamb, and pork as main dish; beef, lamb, and pork as mixed dish, pork as main dish; processed meat intake is defined as sum of salami, bologna, or other processed meat sandwiches (1998 FFQ), other processed meats, e.g., sausage, kielbasa, etc. (1998 FFQ), processed meats, e.g., sausage, salami, bologna, etc. (1986-1994 FFQ), hotdogs (1986-1998 FFQ), and bacon (1986-1998 FFQ).

  • * Models adjusted for age, height, smoking, family history of prostate cancer, race, history of vasectomy, vigorous exercise, body mass index, alcohol intake, and total energy intake. Models with western pattern were adjusted for the same variables but not alcohol intake.