Table 1.

Characteristics of women who developed lung cancer and noncases in the IWHS

CharacteristicsAll lung cancer cases, N = 403, n (%)Noncases, N = 26,759, n (%)HR (95% CI)P
Age
    61-65148 (36.7)9,974 (37.3)1.00 (reference)
    66-70142 (35.2)9,392 (35.1)1.02 (0.81-1.28)
    71+113 (28.0)7,383 (27.6)1.03 (0.80-1.32)0.97
Pack-years
    073 (18.8)18,174 (69.4)1.00 (reference)
    1-1923 (5.9)3,537 (13.5)1.62 (1.01-2.59)
    20-39122 (31.4)2,665 (10.2)11.4 (8.50-15.3)
    40+170 (43.8)1,808 (6.9)23.4 (17.7-30.9)<0.0001
Smoking status
    Never73 (18.5)18,174 (69.0)1.00 (reference)
    Past148 (37.5)6,008 (22.8)6.13 (4.63-8.13)
    Current174 (44.0)2,178 (8.3)19.9 (15.1-26.2)<0.0001
Alcohol (g/d)
    0175 (43.4)14,963 (55.9)1.00 (reference)
    0.9-1.954 (13.4)3,974 (14.8)1.16 (0.85-1.56)
    ≥2174 (43.2)7,822 (29.2)1.90 (1.52-2.32)<0.0001
Education
    <High school graduate91 (22.6)4,603 (17.2)1.00 (reference)
    High school graduate164 (40.7)11,308 (42.4)0.73 (0.57-0.95)
    Post-high school148 (36.7)10,791 (40.4)0.69 (0.53-0.90)0.02
BMI
    ≥30 kg/m257 (14.1)6,085 (22.7)0.56 (0.42-0.74)<0.0001
WHR
    ≥0.8274 (median)203 (50.6)13,338 (50.0)1.03 (0.84-1.25)0.80
Total fruit servings weekly
    ≥17 (median)149 (37.0)13,486 (50.4)0.58 (0.47-0.71)<0.0001
Total vegetable servings weekly
    ≥22.5 (median)194 (48.1)13,764 (51.4)0.88 (0.72-1.07)0.19
Energy intake (kcal/d)
    ≥1707 (median)205 (50.9)13,383 (50.0)1.03 (0.85-1.26)0.73
Current vitamin use117 (29.1)8,763 (33.2)0.84 (0.68-1.04)0.03
History of arthritis206 (51.8)12,749 (48.2)0.87 (0.71-1.06)0.16
History of high blood pressure136 (34.4)9,450 (36.1)1.16 (0.87-1.54)0.49
History of migraines40 (10.0)2,544 (9.6)1.04 (0.75-1.45)0.95
Family history of cancer159 (39.4)10,013 (37.5)1.09 (0.89-1.33)0.40
History of heart disease/heart attack75 (21.1)3,297,(14.1)1.74 (1.35-2.25)0.0002
  • NOTE: Baseline (1986) variables: BMI, WHR, family history of lung cancer, family history of cancer, pack-years, high blood pressure, multivitamin use, fruit and vegetable intake, education, and energy intake. Follow-up (1992) variables: age, history of arthritis, smoking status, history of heart disease/heart attack, history of migraines, and alcohol.