Table 1.

Summary of autoimmune/inflammatory disorders consistently associated with risk of malignant lymphomas, including reported RR range, disease-related risk factors, associated lymphoma subtypes, and future research issues

Most reported RR rangeDisease-related risk factorsAssociated lymphoma subtypesFuture research issuesSelected references
RA1.5-4Inflammatory activityDiffuse large B-cell lymphomaRisk prediction(18-20, 26)
Extra-articular diseaseTNF drug safety
Role of genetics
Preventive treatment
Sjögren's syndrome9-16HypocomplementemiaMALT lymphomaRisk prediction(15, 50, 51, 54, 57)
Low CD4+ T-cell countsDiffuse large B-cell lymphoma?Preventive treatment
Purpura, parotid enlargement
SLE3-7No data publishedDiffuse large B-cell lymphoma?Disease-related risk factors?(23, 62, 64, 65)
Celiac disease3-6Noncompliance with gluten-free diet?Enteropathy-type T-cell lymphomaEffect of gluten-free diet?(23, 70, 72, 74, 77)
B-cell lymphomas (Diffuse large B-cell type?)
Dermatitis herpetiformis2-10Noncompliance with gluten-free diet?Enteropathy-type T-cell lymphomaEffect of gluten-free diet?(72, 75, 76, 78)
B-cell lymphomas
Hashimoto's thyroiditis3-4No data publishedMALT lymphomaAssociation confined to thyroid lymphoma?(79, 80, 82)
Inflammatory myositis2-4*Paramalignant phenomenon only?No data publishedCausal association with lymphoma?(84)
  • * Confined to the first few years of follow-up.