Table 3.

HRs and 95% CIs of gastric cancer according to consumption of subgroups of vegetables among 82,002 Swedish women and men, 1998-2005

Vegetable consumption (servings/wk)
Green leafy vegetables
    Person-years of follow-up114,440212,910264,206
    Age- and sex-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.000.65 (0.42-0.99)0.65 (0.43-0.98)0.16
    Multivariate HR (95% CI)*1.000.64 (0.42-0.99)0.64 (0.42-0.99)0.17
    Person-years of follow-up111,612313,198166,746
    Age- and sex-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.000.79 (0.53-1.17)0.73 (0.45-1.17)0.27
    Multivariate HR (95% CI)*1.000.78 (0.52-1.17)0.70 (0.43-1.15)0.30
Root vegetables
    Person-years of follow-up66,880257,388267,288
    Age- and sex-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.000.49 (0.31-0.79)0.44 (0.28-0.71)0.02
    Multivariate HR (95% CI)*1.000.49 (0.30-0.79)0.43 (0.27-0.69)0.02
Fruiting vegetables
    Person-years of follow-up84,666126,419380,471
    Age- and sex-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.001.18 (0.70-2.00)1.02 (0.64-1.62)0.72
    Multivariate HR (95% CI)*1.001.20 (0.71-2.04)1.04 (0.64-1.67)0.76
Onion, leek, and garlic
    Person-years of follow-up107,790198,365285,401
    Age- and sex-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.000.89 (0.58-1.38)0.91 (0.59-1.41)0.81
    Multivariate HR (95% CI)*1.000.89 (0.57-1.39)0.90 (0.58-1.41)0.78
  • NOTE: Green leafy vegetables include spinach, lettuce, and green salad; cabbages include white cabbage, red cabbage, Chinese cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts; root vegetables include carrots and beetroots; fruiting vegetables include tomatoes/tomato juice and sweet pepper.

  • * Multivariate hazard ratios were adjusted for age (in months), sex, education (less than high school, high school graduate, or more than high school), smoking status and pack-years of smoking (never smoker, past smoker and <20 pack-years, past smoker and ≥20 pack-years, current smoker and <20 pack-years, or current smoker and ≥20 pack-years), diabetes (yes/no), and intakes of total energy (continuous), alcohol (quartiles), and processed meat (<1.5, 1.5-4.9, or ≥5 servings/wk).