Table 2.

Relative contributions of food, juice, and supplements to 12-month plasma carotenoids (n = 2,346)

ModelVariableα-Carotene
β-Carotene
Lutein
Lycopene
β coefficient*SER2β coefficient*SER2β coefficient*SER2β coefficient*SER2
Basic (B)0.3610.5490.5520.395
Food + BFood0.1660.0130.4060.2480.0160.5930.1440.0110.5810.0400.0060.412
Juice + BJuice0.0870.0020.6200.0460.0020.6490.0210.0010.5940.0190.0020.432
Supp + BSupplement0.0110.0020.5530.0040.0020.552
FullBaseline plasma0.5670.0190.6280.6350.0160.6640.6680.0150.6060.5110.0160.446
Age−0.0010.0010.0000.0010.0000.000−0.0020.001
Current smoker−0.1110.031−0.1280.027−0.0030.017−0.0330.023
Cholesterol0.0010.0000.0010.0000.0010.0000.0010.000
BMI−0.0120.001−0.0120.001−0.0050.001−0.0040.001
Juice0.0830.0020.0110.0020.005§0.0020.0180.001
Food0.0740.0100.1350.0150.0960.0120.0340.006
Supplement0.0400.0020.0170.001
  • * β coefficients represent change in plasma carotenoids per unit change of independent variables. Food, juice, and supplement values were calculated as μg/d.

  • Basic model includes baseline plasma carotenoid concentration, age, smoking status, 12-month plasma cholesterol, 12-month BMI, 12-month alcohol usage in tertiles, clinical site, season of the 12-month blood draw.

  • P < 0.001.

  • § P < 0.05.