Table 1.

Carotenoid concentrations in study groups at baseline and 12 months

CarotenoidIntervention group, n = 1,445, mean (SD)Comparison group, n = 1,477, mean (SD)
α-Carotene (μmol/L)
    Baseline0.204 (0.230)0.204 (0.213)
    12 mo0.597 (0.686)0.203 (0.219)
β-Carotene (μmol/L)
    Baseline0.865 (0.874)0.914 (1.065)
    12 mo1.466 (1.416)0.868 (0.937)
Lutein (μmol/L)
    Baseline0.380 (0.200)0.376 (0.204)
    12 mo0.459 (0.243)0.381 (0.213)
Lycopene (μmol/L)
    Baseline0.653 (0.345)0.655 (0.344)
    12 mo0.739 (0.368)0.650 (0.340)
β-Cryptoxanthin (μmol/L)
    Baseline0.171 (0.155)0.178 (0.175)
    12 mo0.179 (0.159)0.177 (0.157)
Total carotenoids (μmol/L)
    Baseline2.272 (1.294)2.327 (1.470)
    12 mo3.440 (2.320)2.279 (1.371)
  • NOTE: All 12-month (log-transformed) carotenoids (except β-cryptoxanthin) were significantly different between groups (P < 0.0001 for group effect) in linear models adjusted for age, clinical site, baseline carotenoid concentrations, BMI at 12 months, plasma cholesterol at 12 months, smoking status at 12 months, and alcohol usage at 12 months. There were no group differences in carotenoid concentrations at baseline.