Table 2.

Summary of biological markers of benzene exposure in the investigated subjects divided according to city, job titles, and smoking habits

LocationJobsAir benzene (μg/m3), median (min-max) N<lod/N*t,t-MA T0 (μg/L), median (min-max) N<lod/Nt,t-MA T1 (μg/L), median (min-max) N<lod/NS-PMA T1 (μg/L), median (min-max) N<lod/NU-benzene T0 (ng/L), median (min-max) N<lod/NU-benzene T1 (ng/L), median (min-max) N<lod/N
GenoaReferents9 (<6-46) 16/49Nonsmokers72 (<10-398) 3/3451 (<10-181) 3/359.0 (0.2-182.2) 0/36Not determinedNot determined
Smokers190 (519-1,850) 0/13195 (<10-444) 1/1313.7 (3.0-19.9) 0/13Not determinedNot determined
Bus drivers21 (<6-92) 5/152Nonsmokers85 (<10-2,014) 16/10657 (<10-536) 13/1065.6 (0.2-13.3) 0/86Not determinedNot determined
Smokers136 (<10-600) 4/47174 (<10-695) 1/479.3 (0.2-65.9) 0/38Not determinedNot determined
MilanReferents6 (<6-115) 25/58Nonsmokers35 (<10-576) 9/3433 (<10-1,089) 7/344.1 (0.2-12.5) 0/34155 (72-1,770) 0/34133 (<15-409) 1/33
Smokers51 (<10-246) 4/2371 (<10-270) 3/238.0 (0.2-13.9) 0/22560 (160-3,414) 0/24331 (64-4,615) 0/22
Traffic policemen22 (9-316) 0/77Nonsmokers86 (<10-1,400) 8/4982 (<10-416) 10/495.3 (0.2-13.8) 0/49256 (98-846) 0/47151 (25-943) 0/49
Smokers222 (<10-1,400) 0/28213 (52-909) 0/289.1 (2.4-13.8) 0/282055 (313-6,430) 0/27753 (54-4,246) 0/28
Gas station attendants61 (11-478) 0/78Nonsmokers35 (<10-672) 6/4649 (<10-581) 5/465.8 (0.2-10.9) 0/38459 (147-2,708) 0/44342 (42-2,836) 0/46
Smokers81 (17-305) 0/32144 (15-321) 0/327.5 (0.2-24.8) 0/272467 (233-5,616) 0/281168 (55-5,111) 0/32
  • * Observations below the detection limit versus total observation.

  • Gas station attendants higher than bus drivers and traffic policemen, higher than controls (P < 0.01).

  • Smokers higher than nonsmokers for all the biomarkers (P < 0.001); statistical analysis was done with t test for independent samples on log10-transformed variables.