Table 4.

Multivariate RRs and 95% CIs for pancreatic cancer according to frequency of soft drink consumption, stratified by BMI and physical activity level in the NHS (1980-2000) and the HPFS (1986-2000) combined

Population*BMIPhysical activity
CasesBMI < 25CasesBMI ≥ 25CasesLow physical activityCasesHigh physical activity
All sugar-sweetened soft drinks combined
    Total
        <1/mo1081.0911.0831.01221.0
        1-12/mo530.85 (0.61-1.19)741.31 (0.96-1.80)661.18 (0.85-1.64)620.96 (0.70-1.31)
        >3/wk211.06 (0.65-1.73)241.23 (0.77-1.97)271.30 (0.83-2.05)191.00 (0.61-1.64)
        P for trend0.890.380.280.96
    Women
        <1/mo701.0351.0341.0721.0
        1-12/mo340.94 (0.62-1.42)361.94 (1.21-3.12)321.57 (0.96-2.58)391.16 (0.78-1.72)
        >3/wk151.33 (0.74-2.37)121.89 (0.96-3.72)142.02 (1.06-3.85)141.37 (0.76-2.47)
        P for trend0.340.100.050.29
    Men
        <1/mo381.0561.0491.0501.0
        1-12/mo190.68 (0.39-1.20)381.03 (0.67-1.57)340.91 (0.58-1.42)230.77 (0.47-1.28)
        >3/wk60.63 (0.26-1.55)120.88 (0.46-1.68)130.88 (0.46-1.66)50.55 (0.21-1.42)
        P for trend0.230.740.680.17
All diet soft drink consumption combined
    Total
        <1/mo861.0661.0721.0831.0
        1-12/mo591.24 (0.88-1.74)560.96 (0.67-1.38)531.07 (0.74-1.54)631.07 (0.77-1.50)
        >3/wk370.95 (0.63-1.41)671.03 (0.72-1.47)510.99 (0.68-1.44)571.03 (0.72-1.47)
        P for trend0.690.880.840.94
    Women
        <1/mo551.0211.0241.0531.0
        1-12/mo341.05 (0.68-1.62)281.31 (0.74-2.32)250.72 (0.41-1.28)371.52 (0.98-2.36)
        >3/wk301.02 (0.64-1.62)341.32 (0.75-2.33)311.05 (0.63-1.76)351.21 (0.75-1.94)
        P for trend0.930.620.380.72
    Men
        <1/mo311.0451.0481.0301.0
        1-12/mo251.65 (0.96-2.83)280.77 (0.48-1.25)280.94 (0.58-1.52)261.26 (0.74-2.15)
        >3/wk70.68 (0.29-1.57)330.81 (0.55-1.40)200.71 (0.41-1.22)221.19 (0.66-2.12)
        P for trend0.340.740.210.67
  • NOTE: Multivariate RRs from Cox proportional hazards models that include age in years, gender, follow-up cycle, history of diabetes (yes/no), smoking status in nine categories (never, currently not with no information on past smoking history, past smoker, currently smoking: 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, and 45+ cigarettes daily), quintiles of caloric intake, quintiles of nonvigorous physical activity (1986) in MET/wk (i.e., the caloric need per kilogram of body weight per hour of activity divided by the caloric need per kilogram per hour at rest), and other soft drink consumption (all diet soft drinks in model for all sugar-sweetened soft drinks; sugar-sweetened cola, other sugar-sweetened soft drinks, diet cola, other diet soft drinks for single food items depending on model).

  • * Number of cases are fewer than total due to missing BMI.

  • Stratified along the median: 11.5 MET/wk for the men and 7.7 MET/wk for the women both as assessed in 1986.

  • Test for trend across categories of exposure are based on the midpoints of the original exposure categories.