Table 3.

Risk of pancreatic cancer by frequencies of diet soft drink consumption among 88,794 women from the NHS and 49,364 men from the HPFS combined

PopulationCategories of intakeP for trend
<1/mo1-12/mo>3/wk
All diet soft drinks combined
    Total
        Cases155116108
        Person-years920,860628,265691,423
        Age-adjusted RR1.01.01 (0.80-1.29)0.95 (0.74-1.23)0.77
        Multivariate-adjusted RR*1.01.12 (0.88-1.43)1.09 (0.85-1.41)0.61
        Multivariate-adjusted RR and BMI1.01.08 (0.85-1.38)1.02 (0.79-1.32)0.98
    Women
        Cases776266
        Person-years662,249460,414507,176
        Age-adjusted RR1.01.09 (0.78-1.52)1.18 (0.85-1.64)0.34
        Multivariate-adjusted RR*1.01.16 (0.83-1.63)1.23 (0.87-1.73)0.33
        Multivariate-adjusted RR and BMI1.01.10 (0.78-1.55)1.12 (0.79-1.59)0.64
    Men
        Cases785442
        Person-years258,611167,851184,247
        Age-adjusted RR1.01.05 (0.74-1.49)0.94 (0.64-1.37)0.81
        Multivariate-adjusted RR*1.01.10 (0.77-1.56)0.94 (0.63-1.38)0.67
        Multivariate-adjusted RR and BMI1.01.08 (0.76-1.53)0.89 (0.60-1.33)0.52
Diet cola
    Total
        Cases18210592
        Person-years1,009,471629,675601,402
        Age-adjusted RR1.00.94 (0.74-1.19)1.05 (0.82-1.36)0.84
        Multivariate-adjusted RR*1.00.92 (0.68-1.24)0.89 (0.62-1.26)0.55
        Multivariate-adjusted RR and BMI1.00.90 (0.67-1.21)0.85 (0.59-1.21)0.39
    Women
        Cases836359
        Person-years705,185467,922455,732
        Age-adjusted RR1.01.11 (0.80-1.54)1.23 (0.88-1.72)0.23
        Multivariate-adjusted RR*1.00.86 (0.50-1.46)0.86 (0.45-1.65)0.92
        Multivariate-adjusted RR and BMI1.00.84 (0.49-1.42)0.83 (0.43-1.59)0.96
    Men
        Cases994233
        Person-years303,286161,753145,670
        Age-adjusted RR1.00.82 (0.57-1.18)0.93 (0.62-1.38)0.51
        Multivariate-adjusted RR*1.00.87 (0.59-1.28)0.88 (0.57-1.37)0.46
        Multivariate-adjusted RR and BMI1.00.86 (0.58-1.26)0.85 (0.54-1.32)0.38
Other diet soft drinks
    Total
        Cases21111157
        Person-years1,181,550680,201378,797
        Age-adjusted RR1.00.97 (0.77-1.22)1.19 (0.89-1.60)0.46
        Multivariate-adjusted RR*1.01.16 (0.86-1.56)1.46 (0.97-2.19)0.08
        Multivariate-adjusted RR and BMI1.01.14 (0.85-1.53)1.40 (0.93-2.11)0.13
    Women
        Cases877444
        Person-years769,487513,700346,652
        Age-adjusted RR1.01.24 (0.91-1.69)1.36 (0.95-1.95)0.08
        Multivariate-adjusted RR*1.01.48 (0.88-2.51)1.58 (0.80-3.12)0.44
        Multivariate-adjusted RR and BMI1.01.44 (0.85-2.44)1.50 (0.76-2.97)0.54
    Men
        Cases1243713
        Person-years412,063166,50132,145
        Age-adjusted RR1.00.81 (0.56-1.17)1.59 (0.90-2.82)0.75
        Multivariate-adjusted RR*1.00.91 (0.60-1.36)1.66 (0.90-3.05)0.13
        Multivariate-adjusted RR and BMI1.00.89 (0.59-1.34)1.62 (0.88-2.97)0.15
  • * RRs (95% CIs) adjusted for age in years, gender, follow-up cycle, history of diabetes (yes/no), smoking status in nine categories (never, currently not with no information on past smoking history, past smoker, currently smoking: 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, and 45+ cigarettes daily), quintiles of caloric intake, quintiles of nonvigorous physical activity in MET/wk (i.e., the caloric need per kilogram of body weight per hour of activity divided by the caloric need per kilogram per hour at rest), and other soft drink consumption (all diet soft drinks in model for all sugar-sweetened soft drinks; sugar-sweetened cola, other sugar-sweetened soft drinks, diet cola, other diet soft drinks for single food items depending on model).

  • Further adjustment for 1976 BMI in five categories (<21, 21-22.9, 23-24.9, 25-28.9, and ≥29 kg/m2).