Table 2.

Risk of pancreatic cancer by frequencies of sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption among 88,794 women from the NHS and 49,364 men from the HPFS combined

PopulationCategories of intakeP for trend
<1/mo1-12/mo>3/wk
All sugar-sweetened soft drinks combined
    Total
        Cases20512846
        Person-years1,132,893787,724319,930
        Age-adjusted RR1.01.04 (0.83-1.30)1.18 (0.86-1.64)0.36
        Multivariate-adjusted RR*1.01.06 (0.84-1.32)1.15 (0.83-1.61)0.41
        Multivariate-adjusted RR and BMI1.01.05 (0.84-1.31)1.13 (0.81-1.58)0.47
    Women
        Cases1067128
        Person-years848,732560,916220,191
        Age-adjusted RR1.01.19 (0.88-1.62)1.56 (1.02-2.38)0.03
        Multivariate-adjusted RR*1.01.29 (0.95-1.75)1.59 (1.04-2.46)0.04
        Multivariate-adjusted RR and BMI1.01.29 (0.95-1.75)1.57 (1.02-2.41)0.05
    Men
        Cases995718
        Person-years284,161226,80999,739
        Age-adjusted RR1.00.84 (0.61-1.16)0.79 (0.48-1.29)0.22
        Multivariate-adjusted RR*1.00.84 (0.60-1.18)0.76 (0.45-1.28)0.26
        Multivariate-adjusted RR and BMI1.00.84 (0.60-1.17)0.75 (0.44-1.26)0.24
Sugar-sweetened cola
    Total
        Cases24310729
        Person-years1,363,927663,831212,790
        Age-adjusted RR1.01.09 (0.87-1.37)1.18 (0.80-1.73)0.30
        Multivariate-adjusted RR*1.01.05 (0.81-1.35)1.09 (0.72-1.65)0.58
        Multivariate-adjusted RR and BMI1.01.04 (0.81-1.34)1.07 (0.71-1.62)0.64
    Women
        Cases1296016
        Person-years1,027,398456,931145,509
        Age-adjusted RR1.01.29 (0.95-1.76)1.33 (0.79-2.26)0.09
        Multivariate-adjusted RR*1.01.27 (0.90-1.80)1.25 (0.70-2.22)0.33
        Multivariate-adjusted RR and BMI1.01.27 (0.90-1.79)1.22 (0.69-2.18)0.36
    Men
        Cases1144713
        Person-years336,529206,90067,280
        Age-adjusted RR1.00.82 (0.58-1.15)0.91 (0.52-1.61)0.40
        Multivariate-adjusted RR*1.00.87 (0.60-1.25)0.92 (0.50-1.69)0.80
        Multivariate-adjusted RR and BMI1.00.86 (0.60-1.24)0.91 (0.50-1.67)0.77
Other sugar-sweetened soft drinks
    Total
        Cases284887
        Person-years1,605,035572,64362,870
        Age-adjusted RR1.01.09 (0.86-1.38)0.82 (0.39-1.75)0.78
        Multivariate-adjusted RR*1.01.12 (0.86-1.47)0.79 (0.36-1.71)0.87
        Multivariate-adjusted RR and BMI1.01.12 (0.85-1.46)0.79 (0.36-1.70)0.85
    Women
        Cases144565
        Person-years1,159,422420,11250,305
        Age-adjusted RR1.01.29 (0.95-1.76)1.00 (0.41-2.44)0.19
        Multivariate-adjusted RR*1.01.25 (0.87-1.78)0.89 (0.35-2.29)0.86
        Multivariate-adjusted RR and BMI1.01.24 (0.87-1.78)0.89 (0.35-2.28)0.87
    Men
        Cases140322
        Person-years445,613152,53112,565
        Age-adjusted RR1.00.85 (0.58-1.24)0.60 (0.15-2.45)0.28
        Multivariate-adjusted RR*1.00.93 (0.61-1.42)0.58 (0.14-2.38)0.36
        Multivariate-adjusted RR and BMI1.00.93 (0.61-1.42)0.58 (0.14-2.38)0.36
  • * RRs (95% CIs) adjusted for age in years, gender, follow-up cycle, history of diabetes (yes/no), smoking status in nine categories (never, currently not with no information on past smoking history, past smoker, currently smoking: 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, and 45+ cigarettes daily), quintiles of caloric intake, quintiles of nonvigorous physical activity in MET/wk (i.e., the caloric need per kilogram of body weight per hour of activity divided by the caloric need per kilogram per hour at rest), and other soft drink consumption (all diet soft drinks in model for all sugar-sweetened soft drinks; sugar-sweetened cola, other sugar-sweetened soft drinks, diet cola, other diet soft drinks for single food items depending on model).

  • Further adjustment for 1976 BMI in five categories (<21, 21-22.9, 23-24.9, 25-28.9, and ≥29 kg/m2).