Table 1.

Age and age-standardized baseline (1980 for NHS, 1986 for HPFS) characteristics according to frequency of sugar-sweetened and diet soft drink consumption among 88,794 women from the NHS and 49,364 men from the HPFS

PopulationFrequency of sugar-sweetened soft drink consumptionFrequency of diet soft drink consumption
Variable<1/mo1-12/mo>3/wk<1/mo1-12/mo>3/wk
Women
    n40,45831,70116,63544,74523,69120,358
    Drinks/category (median)05/mo1.3/d07/mo1.6/d
    Age [mean (SD)], y47.8 (7.0)46.3 (7.2)44.8 (7.1)46.9 (7.2)46.9 (7.1)46.0 (7.1)
    Baseline BMI ≥ 29 kg/m2 (%)11.210.313.67.712.617.5
    Vigorous physical activity [mean (SD)], h/wk2.8 (3.1)2.8 (3.3)2.9 (3.2)2.9 (3.3)2.7 (3.2)2.7 (3.0)
    Height [mean (SD)],64.4 (3.2)64.4 (3.4)64.4 (3.2)64.4 (3.2)64.4 (3.2)64.5 (3.3)
    Currently smoking (%)292633332427
    Smoking [mean (SD)], pack-years5.4 (8.3)4.5 (7.6)5.6 (8.4)5.7 (8.5)4.1 (7.2)5.1 (8.0)
    History of diabetes (%)3.31.31.61.22.64.6
    Regular aspirin use* (%)595753595653
    Total carbohydrates (g)137 (56)153 (56)187 (65)159 (62)147 (57)144 (61)
    Total sucrose (g)30 (19)36 (20)42 (22)36 (21)33 (19)31 (20)
    Free fructose (g)20 (13)23 (12)44 (23)27 (18)25 (15)25 (18)
    Glycemic index50 (4.7)52 (3.7)55 (3.2)52 (4.2)51 (4.3)50 (5.0)
    Total fat (g)64 (28)70 (27)76 (29)70 (29)66 (27)67 (28)
Men
    n22,10218,5568,70622,09413,07514,195
    Drinks/category (median)05/mo1.1/d06/mo1.5/d
    Age [mean (SD)], y50.1 (9.7)48.0 (9.6)45.1 (9.2)49.3 (10.0)49.2 (9.7)46.4 (9.2)
    Baseline BMI ≥ 29 kg/m2 (%)14.813.314.310.713.419.8
    Total physical activity [mean (SD)], MET/wk22.6 (31)20.0 (28)18.9 (28)19.5 (27)21.2 (30)23.0 (33)
    Height [mean (SD)]70.0 (3.4)70.1 (3.4)70.2 (3.5)70.0 (3.5)70.0 (3.3)70.1 (3.3)
    Currently smoking (%)7.38.612.110.97.16.6
    History of diabetes (%)5.41.30.91.43.36.6
    Total carbohydrates (g)212 (80)235 (80)284 (88)242 (87)228 (84)223 (83)
    Total sucrose (g)37 (20)47 (22)63 (27)48 (25)44 (23)43 (23)
    Free fructose (g)22 (14)25 (13)38 (17)28 (16)26 (15)24 (14)
    Glycemic index52 (3.9)53 (3.3)55 (2.9)54 (3.7)53 (3.6)53 (3.6)
    Total fat (g)65 (26)73 (27)83 (29)72 (29)68 (27)71 (28)
  • NOTE: Age standardized according to eight categories (<45, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, and ≥75 years) as of the 2-year period when participants first entered follow-up.

  • * Regular aspirin use defined as two or more tablets weekly.

  • Nonvigorous physical activity in MET/wk (i.e., the caloric need per kilogram of body weight per hour of activity divided by the caloric need per kilogram per hour at rest).