Table 5.

Infections during infancy and the risk of childhood ALL by ethnicity, the NCCLS, 1995 to 2002

Hispanic
Non-Hispanic White
Cases n (%)Controls n (%)OR (95% CI)*Cases n (%)Controls n (%)OR (95% CI)*
Severe diarrhea/vomiting
    ALL
        No78 (65.6)112 (73.7)1.00106 (80.3)141 (81.5)1.00
        Yes41 (34.4)40 (26.3)1.42 (0.73-2.77)26 (19.7)32 (18.5)1.31 (0.69-2.48)
    c-ALL
        No46 (64.8)67 (77.9)1.0059 (79.7)79 (82.3)1.00
        Yes25 (35.2)19 (22.1)1.92 (0.72-5.08)15 (20.3)17 (17.7)1.21 (0.50-2.91)
Ear infection
    ALL
        No59 (49.2)81 (53.3)1.0064 (47.8)80 (46.0)1.00
        Yes61 (50.8)71 (46.7)1.01 (0.61-1.69)70 (52.2)94 (54.0)0.65 (0.39-1.10)
    c-ALL
        No36 (50.7)42 (48.8)1.0037 (50.0)41 (42.3)1.00
        Yes35 (49.3)45 (51.2)0.74 (0.37-1.50)37 (50.0)56 (57.7)0.32 (0.14-0.74)
Persistent cough
    ALL
        No107 (88.4)135 (87.7)1.00124 (92.5)167 (96.0)1.00
        Yes14 (11.6)19 (12.3)0.71 (0.31-1.60)10 (7.5)7 (4.0)1.80 (0.50-6.55)
    c-ALL
        No63 (88.7)75 (87.2)1.0067 (91.8)93 (95.9)1.00
        Yes8 (11.3)15 (12.8)0.60 (0.19-1.93)6 (8.2)4 (4.1)2.24 (0.50-10.0)
Total no. infections during infancy
    ALL
        023 (19.0)39 (25.3)1.0040 (29.0)51 (29.3)1.00
        1-448 (39.7)73 (47.4)1.00 (0.50-2.01)61 (44.2)76 (43.7)0.92 (0.52-1.63)
        ≥550 (41.3)42 (27.3)1.74 (0.80-3.76)37 (26.8)47 (27.0)0.79 (0.40-1.57)
    c-ALL
        013 (18.3)22 (25.6)1.0020 (27.0)23 (23.7)1.00
        1-427 (38.0)38 (44.2)0.75 (0.27-2.08)34 (46.0)45 (46.4)0.55 (0.23-1.31)
        ≥531 (43.7)26 (30.2)1.40 (0.48-4.06)20 (27.0)29 (29.9)0.41 (0.15-1.14)
  • * ORs and 95% CIs are derived from conditional logistic regression models, adjusting for annual household income and maternal education.

  • Those included severe diarrhea/vomiting, ear infection, persistent cough, mouth infection, eye infection, influenza, and unspecified “other infections.” Each episode of infection is counted once. For example, if a child had ear infections thrice, mouth infection twice, and no other infections, then the total number of infections would be 5.