Table 6.

Summary of the role of cytokine polymorphisms in the development of upper gastrointestinal pathologies

ReferenceStudied populationEthnicityCytokine polymorphismFinding
(29)209 H. pylori+, 184 H. pyloriCaucasian (German)TNF-A −308 G/GRisk factor for duodenal ulcer in H. pylori+ females
(11)393 cases, 430 controlsCaucasian (Americans)Haplotype IL-1B −31C/IL-1RN*2Increased risk of gastric cancer
(17)152 cases, 218 controlsPortugueseIL-1B −511T+IL-1RN *2/*2Increased risk for gastric carcinoma and synergistic interaction between both polymorphisms.
(13)579 H. pylori+, 227 H. pyloriAsian (Japanese)IL-1B −511 T/TAssociated with atrophic gastritis
(15)221 chronic gastritis, 222 gastric carcinomaPortugueseIL-1B −511T+Patients with greater risk for gastric carcinoma were those with both bacterial (cagA +/vacAs1+) and host high-risk genotypes.
(16)117 H. pylori+ CagA+ patientsAsian (Japanese)IL-1B −511 T/THigher mucosal IL-1β levels
IL-1RN *2
(19)210 H. pylori+Caucasian (German)IL-1B −511T/-31CIncreased risk for the development of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and severe inflammation.
IL-1RN*2Higher prevalence if host is colonized with bacterial high-risk genotypes (cagA+/vacAs1+) as well.
(12)188 cases, 210 controlsCaucasian (Americans)IL-1B −511T+The carriage of multiple proinflammatory polymorphisms confers greater risk for the development of gastric cancer.
IL-1RN *2/*2
IL-10 ATA/ATA
TNF-A −308A+
(18)646 patients with various gastrointestinal complaintsAsian (Japanese, Chinese, Vietnamese, Thai)IL-1B −511No association of the IL-1β polymorphism and the risk of gastric atrophy in Thai and Vietnamese patients.
(20)86 cases, 169 controlsAsian (Chinese)IL-1B −511 T/TAssociated with gastric cancer
(22)190 gastric cancer, 117 duodenal ulcer, 172 controlsAsian (Korean)IL-1B −31C+ IL-1RN *2/*2Lack of association with an increase in risk of gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer
(33)33 cases, 25 controlsHispanic (Mexican)IL-1B −31C+Associated with increased risk of gastric cancer
IL-1RNNo association
IL-10 (−592, 1082)
TNF-A
(30)129 gastric cancer, 792 upper gastrointestinal pathologiesCaucasian (Italians)IL-1B −31Failed to find association with increased risk of gastric cancer or its precursors
(21)142 cases, 164 controlsAsian (Chinese)IL-1B −511No difference between cases and controls
IL-1RN *2First study to verify association with development of gastric cancer in Asian individuals.
(31)341 gastric cancer, 133 duodenal ulcer, 261 controlsAsian (Korean)TNF-A (−308, −1031, −863, −857, −238)No association with gastric cancer
(32)207 H. pylori+, 535 H. pyloriCaucasian (89% German)IL-1B −511T+ IL-1RN *2Associated with increased mucosal IL-1β expression and prevalence of atrophic gastritis.
IL-10 GCCHigher mucosal IL-10 mRNA levels
IL-10 ATAColonization by more virulent H. pylori strains
TNF-ANo influence on mucosal cytokine expression