Table 4.

Changes in insulin, glucose, insulin resistance, and IGF axis variables over 6 or 12 mos of weight training

Variable nameBaseline
6 mos
12 mos
Δ0-6 mos (mean ± SD)P for 0-6 mo differences*Δ6-12 mos (mean ± SD)P for within-person control tests
nMean ± SDnMean ± SDnMean ± SD
Glucose (mg/d)
    Immediate treatment3992.19 ± 1.853788.49 ± 1.883394.40 ± 1.95−3.70 ± 1.710.90−4.09 ± 1.800.17
    Delayed treatment§4191.73 ± 1.823988.35 ± 1.853589.02 ± 1.90−3.38 ± 1.660.67 ± 1.73
Insulin (microunits/mL)
    Immediate treatment387.66 ± 0.69378.21 ± 0.69337.01 ± 0.710.55 ± 0.510.79−1.20 ± 0.530.46
    Delayed treatment§417.59 ± 0.67407.94 ± 0.67357.65 ± 0.690.35 ± 0.49−0.29 ± 0.51
HOMA (units)
    Immediate treatment381.74 ± 0.19361.79 ± 0.19331.46 ± 0.200.05 ± 0.151.00−0.32 ± 0.150.78
    Delayed treatment§411.76 ± 0.18391.80 ± 0.19351.78 ± 0.190.05 ± 0.14−0.02 ± 0.15
IGF-I (ng/mL)
    Immediate treatment38172.93 ± 11.5839181.22 ± 11.5532176.63 ± 11.828.29 ± 6.260.16−4.60 ± 6.620.64
    Delayed treatment§40194.26 ± 11.4040190.30 ± 11.4135191.28 ± 11.57−3.97 ± 6.100.98 ± 6.36
IGF-II (ng/mL)
    Immediate treatment38898.01 ± 34.9239871.77 ± 34.8532870.11 ± 35.48−26.23 ± 16.730.02−1.16 ± 17.690.02
    Delayed treatment§40891.26 ± 34.4040919.54 ± 34.4235879.32 ± 34.8128.28 ± 16.31−40.22 ± 17.00
IGFBP-1 (ng/mL)
    Immediate treatment3836.86 ± 2.883934.73 ± 2.863235.52 ± 3.00−2.14 ± 2.320.360.79 ± 2.450.47
    Delayed treatment§4036.94 ± 2.824037.75 ± 2.833535.67 ± 2.920.81 ± 2.26−2.07 ± 2.36
IGFBP-2 (ng/mL)
    Immediate treatment38421.72 ± 29.5139449.63 ± 29.4232451.09 ± 30.1727.91 ± 16.830.301.46 ± 17.800.89
    Delayed treatment§40472.86 ± 29.0440476.45 ± 29.0635484.08 ± 29.533.58 ± 16.427.63 ± 17.11
IGFBP-3 (ng/mL)
    Immediate treatment384,339.66 ± 133.17394,356.20 ± 132.66324,380.96 ± 136.9416.54 ± 85.890.3224.76 ± 90.790.03
    Delayed treatment§404,519.72 ± 130.91404,655.05 ± 131.02354,470.66 ± 133.72135.33 ± 83.79−184.4 ± 87.3
  • * P from test for comparing the changes in the immediate treatment group to the changes in the delayed treatment group over the first 6 mos of the study (randomized controlled trial).

  • P from test for comparing the delayed treatment group changes from mos 7 to 12 to the delayed treatment group changes from mos 0 to 6 (within-person control).

  • The immediate treatment group trained from 0 to 12 mos continuously.

  • § The delayed treatment group started training after the 6-mo measures were complete and through 12 mos.

  • Put HOMA units here (can not remember them right now).