Table 2.

Crude and adjusted hormone values of case and control mothers

nCases, mean (SD)Controls, mean (SD)P*P
α-Fetoprotein (IU/mL)
    Total199205.3 (90.9)207.6 (102.5)0.900.96
    Black77190.4 (83.2)197.4 (122.6)0.830.77
    White122214.7 (94.6)214.1 (87.4)0.810.95
Sex hormone–binding globulin (nmol/L)
    Total198541.1 (176.2)545.3 (162.8)0.880.88
    Black77564.8 (198.2)566.4 (161.9)0.780.47
    White121526.1 (159.6)531.9 (162.6)0.830.71
Testosterone (pg/mL)
    Total199142.3 (86.2)152.0 (99.9)0.240.65
    Black77180.5 (104.8)197.8 (133.3)0.360.65
    White122118.1 (61.1)123.1 (54.8)0.520.87
Free testosterone (pg/mL)
    Total1984.5 (2.9)4.6 (2.8)0.740.72
    Black775.4 (3.2)5.7 (3.6)0.580.69
    White1213.8 (2.5)3.8 (1.6)0.850.44
Bioavailable testosterone (ng/dL)
    Total1989.3 (6.1)9.6 (5.8)0.740.72
    Black7711.4 (6.8)12.0 (7.6)0.580.69
    White1218.0 (5.3)8.0 (3.5)0.840.43
Estradiol (ng/mL)
    Total19918.8 (7.8)20.8 (9.7)0.030.05
    Black7718.1 (7.3)19.9 (9.5)0.380.50
    White12219.2 (8.1)21.3 (9.8)0.050.09
Free estradiol (pg/mL)
    Total198114.8 (52.7)125.0 (59.2)0.100.17
    Black77106.5 (47.2)115.7 (57.6)0.450.39
    White121120.1 (55.5)130.8 (59.8)0.110.30
Bioavailable estradiol (pg/mL)
    Total1982,496.3 (1,146.3)2,717.7 (1,288.3)0.090.17
    Black772,316.2 (1,024.8)2,516.8 (1,252.4)0.450.39
    White1212,610.8 (1,207.5)2,845.6 (1,299.6)0.110.29
Estriol (ng/mL)
    Total19711.2 (5.0)12.0 (4.8)0.050.04
    Black7610.9 (6.5)12.0 (5.3)0.710.74
    White12111.4 (3.9)12.0 (4.4)0.050.04
Estradiol/testosterone
    Total19915.6 (7.1)15.8 (7.1)0.810.63
    Black7712.1 (6.1)11.9 (5.1)0.540.61
    White12217.8 (6.9)18.3 (7.1)0.360.30
Free estradiol/free testosterone
    Total19831.1 (15.0)31.7 (15.5)0.660.55
    Black7723.9 (12.8)23.8 (10.7)0.580.64
    White12135.7 (14.5)36.7 (16.0)0.280.27
Bioavailable estradiol/bioavailable testosterone
    Total198322.7 (156.0)328.1 (160.5)0.680.57
    Black77248.3 (132.7)246.2 (111.1)0.550.62
    White121370.0 (151.7)380.3 (165.6)0.290.28
  • * Adjusted for gestational age at blood draw.

  • Adjusted for gestational age at blood draw, maternal age, and maternal prepregnancy weight.