Table 1.

Characteristics of the study population

Cases (n = 768)Controls (n = 709)P
Female (%)46.561.6<0.01
Age (y)*59.1 ± 10.151.5 ± 13.6<0.01
Body mass index (kg/m2)*26.1 ± 3.825.5 ± 4.1<0.01
Smoking status (% ever)67.055.3<0.01
Physical activity (% high)29.833.50.13
Educational level (% low)35.733.00.30
Family history of colorectal cancer (% yes)23.520.10.12
Regular nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug use (≥12 times/y; % yes)25.128.50.14
Indication for colonoscopy (%)
    Complaints47.776.7
    Screening44.711.3
    Other/unknown7.612.0<0.01
Contraceptive use (% ever)65.277.6<0.01
Hormone replacement therapy (% ever)21.129.60.03
MTHFRC677T genotype (%)
    CC44.745.8
    CT45.043.1
    TT10.311.10.72
Dietary intake
    Energy (kJ/d)*8,703 ± 2,4848,434 ± 2,4980.04
    Total vegetables (g/d)*129 ± 53121 ± 46<0.01
    Total fruits (g/d)*192 ± 138185 ± 1300.30
    Fat (g/d)*83 ± 3079 ± 290.03
    Alcohol (g/d)§9.5 (1.0;24.1)4.2 (0.3;15.5)<0.01
    Vitamin B2 (mg/d)*1.62 ± 0.571.59 ± 0.560.27
    Vitamin B6 (mg/d)*1.65 ± 0.481.59 ± 0.450.02
    Folate (μg/d)*200 ± 60190 ± 53<0.01
    Vitamin B12 (μg/d)*4.87 ± 2.634.52 ± 2.00<0.01
    Calcium (mg/d)*1,095 ± 4331,083 ± 4030.57
    Fiber (mg/d)*23.6 ± 6.723.1 ± 6.70.12
Supplementary multivitamin use (% yes)17.517.90.82
Supplementary B-vitamin use (% yes)6.96.50.75
  • * Mean ± SD.

  • Among women only.

  • Among postmenopausal women only.

  • § Median (25th percentile; 75th percentile).