Table 3.

Multivariate hazard ratios of colorectal cancer and 95% confidence intervals for quintiles of fiber intake by source of fiber

Source of fiberStudy-wide quintiles*
P trend
1
2
3
4
5
RangeMeanRangeMeanRangeMeanRangeMeanRangeMean
Fiber from fruits (g/d)
    Men<1.42.71.4-2.33.12.4-3.53.83.5-5.24.3>5.25.3
    Women<2.12.82.1-3.23.43.3-4.53.94.6-6.64.4>6.65.4
    Base (n = 1,065)10.69 (0.57-0.85)0.76 (0.63-0.92)0.82 (0.66-0.99)0.78 (0.64-0.97)0.17
    Base (n = 1,721)10.73 (0.62-0.85)0.74 (0.63-0.87)0.84 (0.71-0.98)0.74 (0.62-0.87)0.04
    Base + folate (n = 1,721)§10.73 (0.62-0.86)0.74 (0.63-0.87)0.84 (0.72-0.99)0.75 (0.63-0.89)0.07
    Maximally adjusted (n = 1,721)10.75 (0.64-0.89)0.78 (0.67-0.92)0.90 (0.76-1.06)0.81 (0.68-0.97)0.42
Fiber from cereals (g/d)
    Men<4.66.64.6-7.48.17.5-10.19.510.2-13.510.5>13.513.1
    Women<3.94.93.9-5.85.95.9-7.76.87.8-10.67.5>10.69.2
    Base (n = 1,065)10.89 (0.74-1.08)0.85 (0.69-1.03)0.88 (0.71-1.08)0.78 (0.62-0.98)0.06
    Base (n = 1,721)11.01 (0.87-1.18)0.88 (0.74-1.04)0.90 (0.75-1.07)0.81 (0.66-0.99)0.02
    Base + folate (n = 1,721)§10.99 (0.84-1.16)0.88 (0.74-1.05)0.90 (0.75-1.07)0.82 (0.67-1.00)0.03
    Maximally adjusted (n = 1,721)11.02 (0.87-1.20)0.94 (0.79-1.11)0.98 (0.82-1.17)0.93 (0.76-1.15)0.44
Fiber from vegetables (g/d)
    Men<1.42.71.4-2.33.12.4-3.43.83.5-5.24.3>5.25.3
    Women<2.12.82.1-3.23.43.3-4.63.94.6-6.64.4>6.65.4
    Base (n = 1,065)10.94 (0.77-1.15)0.95 (0.77-1.16)1.00 (0.81-1.24)0.88 (0.70-1.11)0.52
    Base (n = 1,721)10.98 (0.83-1.16)0.96 (0.80-1.13)0.94 (0.79-1.12)0.92 (0.76-1.10)0.60
    Base + folate (n = 1,721)§10.99 (0.84-1.17)0.97 (0.82-1.15)0.96 (0.80-1.16)0.96 (0.77-1.18)0.63
    Maximally adjusted (n = 1,721)10.99 (0.84-1.17)0.97 (0.82-1.16)0.96 (0.80-1.16)0.94 (0.76-1.16)0.52
Fiber from legumes (g/d)
    Men0NC0-0.1NC0.1-0.40.50.5-1.30.9>1.31.9
    Women0NC0-0.1NC0.1-0.50.40.6-1.30.7>1.31.0
    Base (n = 1,065)11.02 (0.83-1.26)1.10 (0.91-1.34)1.18 (0.97-1.43)1.04 (0.84-1.30)0.31
    Base (n = 1,721)10.98 (0.83-1.16)0.96 (0.82-1.12)1.04 (0.89-1.23)0.94 (0.79-1.12)0.77
    Base + folate (n = 1,721)§10.98 (0.83-1.16)0.96 (0.82-1.13)1.05 (0.89-1.24)0.95 (0.80-1.14)0.90
    Maximally adjusted (n = 1,719)11.00 (0.84-1.18)0.97 (0.83-1.14)1.08 (0.91-1.27)0.98 (0.82-1.17)0.86
  • Abbreviation: NC, not computed.

  • * The ranges are based on the food frequency questionnaires, and the means are estimated from 24-hour recall data from participants in the calibration study. Mean fiber from legumes from 24-hour recall was not computed for the 1st and 2nd quintile because of many zero or extreme values.

  • From published results (1).

  • Base: Cox regression using age, sex, energy from nonfat sources (continuous variable), energy from fat sources (continuous variable), height and weight (tertiles defined for each sex and center), and stratified for center (same adjustment as in ref. 1).

  • § Base + folate: Same covariates as base and folate.

  • Maximally adjusted: Same covariates as base + folate and physical activity (five categories), alcohol consumption (g/d), smoking status (never, former, current smoker, missing), educational level, and intake of meat and processed meat.