Table 4.

Association of plasma sex steroid hormone concentrations and length of the androgen receptor gene CAG repeat with total prostate cancer by age at diagnosis, family history of prostate cancer, and body mass index among matched pairs nested in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 1993-1998

Younger at diagnosis (<64 y, n = 112)
    Testosterone1.00*1.071.521.01 (0.35-2.90)0.64
    Androstanediol glucuronide1.00*1.361.712.29 (0.95-5.52)0.07
    Estradiol1.00*0.951.400.96 (0.34-2.72)0.93
    SHBG1.00*0.941.000.86 (0.31-2.34)0.77
    AR gene CAG repeat1.10 (0.50-2.42)1.090.791.00*0.78
Older at diagnosis (≥64 y, n = 336)
    Testosterone1.00*0.671.070.66 (0.37-1.20)0.47
    Androstanediol glucuronide1.00* (0.59-1.49)0.67
    Estradiol1.00*0.980.780.93 (0.57-1.51)0.50
    SHBG1.00*1.190.971.25 (0.68-2.32)0.75
    AR gene CAG repeat0.76 (0.49-1.19)0.760.751.00*0.12
Family history of prostate cancer (n = 66)
    Testosterone1.00*2.093.822.58 (0.57-11.72)0.23
    Androstanediol glucuronide1.00*3.061.441.28 (0.36-4.56)0.86
    Estradiol1.00*0.640.600.53 (0.15-1.91)0.38
    SHBG1.00*0.640.741.09 (0.21-5.57)0.76
    AR gene CAG repeat0.40 (0.09-1.68)1.180.521.00*0.49
No family history of prostate cancer (n = 382)
    Testosterone1.00*0.691.030.67 (0.39-1.14)0.44
    Androstanediol glucuronide1.00* (0.77-1.78)0.50
    Estradiol1.00*1.090.990.97 (0.64-1.47)0.75
    SHBG1.00*1.090.921.00 (0.59-1.72)0.79
    AR gene CAG repeat0.88 (0.59-1.33)0.800.811.00*0.38
Lower body mass index (<25 kg/m2, n = 189)
    Testosterone1.00* (0.39-2.11)0.81
    Androstanediol glucuronide1.00*1.891.961.40 (0.75-2.63)0.30
    Estradiol1.00*1.140.780.79 (0.41-1.51)0.36
    SHBG1.00*1.891.101.29 (0.56-2.95)0.80
    AR gene CAG repeat0.94 (0.52-1.69)0.920.671.00*0.75
Higher body mass index (≥25 kg/m2, n = 259)
    Testosterone1.00*0.641.260.72 (0.37-1.41)0.75
    Androstanediol glucuronide1.00*0.840.811.02 (0.61-1.73)0.95
Estradiol1.00*0.931.010.97 (0.57-1.64)0.91
    SHBG1.00*0.790.931.06 (0.54-2.07)0.81
    AR gene CAG repeat0.74 (0.44-1.24)0.750.781.00*0.17
  • NOTE: ORs and 95% CIs were estimated from conditional logistic regression models (when stratified by the matching variable age) or logistic regression models (when stratified by family history and body mass index) separately for the sex steroid hormones and the androgen receptor gene CAG repeat. The sex steroid hormones and SHBG were mutually adjusted. Prostate cancer cases and controls were matched on age, time of day, year, and season of blood draw, and PSA test before blood draw.

    Abbreviation: AR, androgen receptor.

  • * Reference group.