Table 6.

Multivariate RR and 95% CIs of breast cancer comparing quartiles of plasma lycopene with other plasma carotenoids in separate models

Quartile of plasma biomarker
P, linear trend
1st2nd3rd4th
Plasma lycopene (μg/dL)5.6*8.511.215.9
    Multivariate-adjusted RR1.00 (ref)0.95 (0.59-1.55)1.15 (0.69-1.90)0.93 (0.56-1.52)0.86
Plasma β-cryptoxanthin (μg/dL)3.56.711.220.6
    Multivariate-adjusted RR1.00 (ref)1.31 (0.79-2.17)0.83 (0.49-1.43)0.82 (0.46-1.44)0.21
Plasma lutein/zeaxanthin (μg/dL)9.714.219.828.8
    Multivariate-adjusted RR1.00 (ref)0.88 (0.52-1.49)0.72 (0.42-1.25)0.78 (0.45-1.38)0.40
Plasma α-carotene (μg/dL)2.24.37.915.9
    Multivariate-adjusted RR1.00 (ref)1.04 (0.60-1.81)0.89 (0.52-1.53)1.06 (0.61-1.84)0.85
Plasma β-carotene (μg/dL)8.315.024.345.6
    Multivariate-adjusted RR1.00 (ref)1.24 (0.75-2.05)1.20 (0.71-2.02)1.36 (0.79-2.33)0.36
  • NOTE: Matched on age and smoking status, and adjusted for randomized aspirin treatment, randomized vitamin E treatment, randomized β-carotene treatment, plasma cholesterol level, body mass index, family history of breast cancer, physical activity, age at menarche, ever use of oral contraceptives, age at first pregnancy, number of pregnancies, postmenopausal status, postmenopausal hormone use, alcohol intake, fiber intake, folate intake, saturated fat intake, and fruit and vegetable intake.

  • * Median value for each plasma biomarker for that quartile.