Table 5.

RR and 95% CIs of breast cancer according to quartiles of plasma lycopene

Quartile of plasma lycopene
P, linear trend
1st (≤7.2 g/dL)2nd (7.2-9.55 g/dL)3rd (9.56-13.0 g/dL)4th (>13.0 g/dL)
Median plasma lycopene (μg/dL)5.68.511.215.9
Total breast cancer (508 case-control pairs)
    Crude*1.00 (ref)0.97 (0.69-1.36)1.09 (0.76-1.57)1.06 (0.74-1.51)0.64
    Multivariate-adjusted RR1.00 (ref)0.96 (0.60-1.52)1.12 (0.68-1.83)0.89 (0.56-1.43)0.72
    Multivariate-adjusted RR,§1.00 (ref)0.95 (0.59-1.55)1.15 (0.69-1.90)0.93 (0.56-1.52)0.86
        +Plasma β-cryptoxanthin1.00 (ref)0.96 (0.59-1.56)1.15 (0.69-1.91)0.94 (0.56-1.57)0.91
        +Plasma lutein/zeaxanthin1.00 (ref)0.95 (0.59-1.55)1.14 (0.69-1.89)0.91 (0.55-1.51)0.81
        +Plasma α-carotene1.00 (ref)0.95 (0.59-1.55)1.15 (0.69-1.90)0.92 (0.55-1.54)0.87
        +Plasma β-carotene1.00 (ref)0.95 (0.59-1.55)1.15 (0.69-1.90)0.92 (0.55-1.54)0.87
Positive for estrogen and progesterone
receptors (344 case-control pairs)
    Crude*1.00 (ref)0.96 (0.63-1.45)0.99 (0.63-1.56)0.95 (0.61-1.47)0.85
    Multivariate-adjusted RR1.00 (ref)0.96 (0.52-1.79)1.20 (0.62-2.30)0.85 (0.46-1.56)0.61
    Multivariate-adjusted RR1.00 (ref)0.96 (0.50-1.84)1.27 (0.65-2.49)0.90 (0.47-1.71)0.80
  • * Matched on age and smoking status, and adjusted for randomized aspirin treatment, randomized vitamin E treatment, randomized β-carotene treatment, and plasma cholesterol level.

  • Adjusted for the covariates above plus body mass index, family history of breast cancer, physical activity, age at menarche, ever use of oral contraceptives, age at first pregnancy, number of pregnancies, postmenopausal status, and postmenopausal hormone use.

  • Adjusted for the covariates above plus alcohol intake, fiber intake, folate intake, saturated fat intake, and fruit and vegetable intake.

  • § Other carotenoids were added separately into the model.