Table 4.

Baseline characteristics among 508 women who developed breast cancer (cases) and an equal number of women who remained free of breast cancer (controls)

Cases (n = 508)Controls (n = 508)P
Body mass index (kg/m2)25.5 ± 4.425.9 ± 4.80.27
History of breast cancer in first-degree relative (%)7.27.70.76
Exercise (%)0.78
    Rarely/never36.639.8
    <Once/wk20.118.7
    One to three times/wk32.931.7
    ≥Four times/wk10.49.8
Alcohol consumption (%)0.17
    Rarely/never41.745.3
    One to three drinks/mo12.215.2
    One to six drinks/wk34.530.1
    ≥One drink/d11.69.5
Menarche ≥14 years (%)16.918.90.40
Ever used oral contraceptives (%)62.165.70.50
    Age at first pregnancy (%)0.028
    <20 years5.910.1
    20-34 years86.885.3
    ≥35 years5.92.6
Nulliparous (%)2.32.60.44
Postmenopausal (%)63.261.00.23
Postmenopausal hormone use (%)0.30
    Never43.840.6
    Former9.512.2
    Current46.847.1
Fruit and vegetable intake (servings/d)6.2 ± 3.26.0 ± 3.10.16
Energy-adjusted dietary factors
    Lycopene intake (μg/d)9,359 ± 6,7809,038 ± 6,4090.44
    Total fiber intake (g/d)19.1 ± 5.619.2 ± 6.20.84
    Folate intake (μg/d)434 ± 228441 ± 2390.62
Saturated fat intake (g/d)19.5 ± 5.019.7 ± 4.70.52
Plasma lycopene (μg/dL)10.8 ± 5.710.3 ± 4.70.20
Plasma total cholesterol (mg/dL)220 ± 37221 ± 390.61
Plasma β-cryptoxanthin (μg/dL)11.4 ± 9.711.1 ± 8.70.52
Plasma lutein/zeaxanthin (μg/dL)19.4 ± 10.518.5 ± 8.80.16
Plasma α-carotene (μg/dL)8.9 ± 8.58.2 ± 7.50.19
Plasma β-carotene (μg/dL)27.1 ± 23.325.4 ± 22.00.24
  • NOTE: Cases and controls were matched on age and smoking status.