Table 3.

RR of breast cancer according to total and individual intake of tomato-based products (tomatoes, tomato juice, tomato sauce, and pizza)

Categories of intake
P, linear trend
1st2nd3rd4th5th
Tomato-based food products<1.5 servings/wk1.5 to <4 servings/wk4 to <7 servings/wk7 to <10 servings/wk≥10 servings/wk
    Number of women (breast cancer cases)6,568 (175)*14,206 (375)11,368 (352)4,587 (130)1,717 (44)
    Age-, energy-, treatment-adjusted RR1.00 (ref)1.01 (0.85-1.21)1.19 (0.98-1.43)1.09 (0.86-1.38)0.98 (0.70-1.39)0.44
    Multivariate-adjusted RR1.00 (ref)1.00 (0.81-1.23)1.20 (0.96-1.49)1.18 (0.89-1.55)1.16 (0.78-1.72)0.11
TomatoesNone*1-3 servings/mo1-4 servings/wk≥5 servings/wk
Number of women (breast cancer cases)2,080 (40)7,772 (222)23,406 (680)4,963 (133)
Age-, energy-, treatment-adjusted RR1.00 (ref)1.47 (1.05-2.06)1.44 (1.05-1.98)1.29 (0.91-1.85)0.94
Multivariate-adjusted RR1.00 (ref)1.54 (1.04-2.29)1.54 (1.05-2.24)1.45 (0.94-2.22)0.66
Tomato juiceNone1-3 servings/mo1 serving/wk≥2 servings/wk
Number of women (breast cancer cases)22,548 (620)9,245 (260)3,709 (123)2,325 (54)
Age-, energy-, treatment-adjusted RR1.00 (ref)1.00 (0.87-1.16)1.17 (0.96-1.42)0.81 (0.61-1.07)0.36
Multivariate-adjusted RR1.00 (ref)0.97 (0.83-1.15)1.16 (0.93-1.44)0.81 (0.59-1.11)0.37
Tomato SauceNone1-3 servings/mo1 serving/wk2-4 servings/wk
Number of women (breast cancer cases)3,654 (101)13,115 (388)14,092 (364)6,857 (205)
Age-, energy-, treatment-adjusted RR1.00 (ref)1.12 (0.90-1.39)1.01 (0.81-1.26)1.20 (0.93-1.53)0.20
Multivariate-adjusted RR1.00 (ref)1.03 (0.80-1.33)0.98 (0.76-1.27)1.23 (0.93-1.64)0.046
PizzaNone1-3 servings/mo1 serving/wk≥2 servings/wk
Number of women (breast cancer cases)9,768 (259)18,054 (542)9,056 (250)1,305 (20)
Age-, energy-, treatment-adjusted RR1.00 (ref)1.23 (1.06-1.43)1.19 (0.99-1.43)0.66 (0.41-1.04)0.35
Multivariate-adjusted RR1.00 (ref)1.25 (1.05-1.48)1.17 (0.95-1.44)0.78 (0.48-1.26)0.54
  • * Number of events in parentheses.

  • Adjusted for age, total caloric intake, randomized aspirin, randomized vitamin E, and randomized β-carotene.

  • Adjusted for the covariates above plus body mass index, family history of breast cancer, physical activity, age at menarche, ever use of oral contraceptives, age at first pregnancy, number of pregnancies, postmenopausal status, postmenopausal hormone use, alcohol intake, fiber intake, folate intake, saturated fat intake, and fruit and vegetable intake.